health quiz 2

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Maurice
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health quiz 2
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2010-07-13 20:48:26
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  1. How infections occur
  2. •The disease process begins when pathogens take over the body.
    • •The 2 most common types of pathogens are viruses and bacteria.
    • •Bacteria are everywhere and do not depend on other organisms to live.
    • •Viruses are dependent on other organisms to live and reproduce.
  3. Bacterial Infections
  4. • Toxic Shock Syndrome and other staphylococcus infections
    • • Lyme disease and other Tickborne infections
    • • Ulcers
    • • Tetanus
    • • Pertussis
    • • Meningitis
    • • Tuberculosis
    • • Pneumonia
    • • Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections
    • • Urinary Tract Infections
  5. Viral Infections
  6. • Chicken Pox, Cold sores, and herpesvirus infections
    • • Viral Encephalitis
    • • Viral Hepatitis
    • • Poliomyelitis
    • • Rabies
    • • Warts
    • • Common Cold
    • • Measles
    • • Mumps
    • • Influenza
    • • Measles, Mumps, Rubella
  7. The body’s immune system
  8. •Basic tools of the immune system are white blood cells.
    • •Signs of infection: fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting
    • •How disease spread:
    • – A pathogen is present.
    • – There is enough of the pathogen to cause disease.
    • – A person is susceptible to the pathogen.
    • – The pathogen passes through the correct entry site.
  9. Breaking the Chain
  10. • Killing pathogen or destroying reservoir
    • • Interrupting transmission
    • • New host
  11. Factors Contributing to Emerging Infections
  12. •Travel and Commerce
    • •Mass Food Production an Distribution
    • •Human Behavior
    • •Drug Resistance
    • •Poverty
    • •Breakdown of Public Health Measures
    • •Environmental Changes
    • •TodayInfectious disease is 3rd leading cause of death in U.S.
    • •Globalization: reality of humans reaching other continents and disparate communities of millions within hours
  13. Advanced Directives
  14. •Will: legal document that determines how an individual wants his or her assets distributed
    • •Living will: state-defined document that specifies what, if any, extraordinary measures a person would want to be taken to prolong his or her life
    • •Medical power of attorney: involves a patient giving power to another individual to make medical decisions when they are unable to do so for themselves
  15. Informed Consent
  16. –All adults receive written info about their right to refuse treatment and to execute advance directives
    • –Inform patient about facility’s policy regarding advanced directives
    • – Make advanced directive part of medical record
    • –Take no discriminatory action because of a patient’s beliefs
  17. When pursuing an advanced directive:
  18. – Contact lawyer
    • – Sign before 2 witnesses
    • – Copy to family, doctor, lawyer
    • – Re-examine and update document every 2 years
  19. Organs and Tissues Suitable for Donation
  20. • Heart
    • • Kidney
    • • Lung
    • • Cornea
    • • Skin grafts
    • • Ligaments
    • • Bones
    • • Bone marrow
  21. Factors for Ranking Recipients
  22. • Tissue match
    • • Blood type
    • • Urgency of need
    • • Length of time on waiting list
    • • Immune status
    • • Distance from available organ
  23. Financial Incentives-Need is so great that sometimes financial incentives are given to families of donors in the following ways:
  24. – Burial expenses
    • – Rebate or deferment of taxes
    • – Grant for surviving spouse/children
    • – Gov’t sponsored paid insurance policy for designated beneficiary
  25. When individual’s intent is not known, the next of kin makes decision
    Order of priority: If individual in a prior category refuses consent, no organs or tissues will be taken
  26. • Spouse
    • • Adult child
    • • Parent
    • • Adult sibling
    • • Legal guardian
  27. Other ways to express your intent for organ donation:
  28. • Organ donor card can be carried in wallet
    • • Driver’s license
    • • Identification bracelets
    • • All persons can indicate their intent to be a
    • • donor. Persons under 18 need parental
    • • permission.
  29. Even when patient is selected from waiting list:
  30. Many times they still aren’t matched because of:
    • – Availability
    • – Healthy enough to undergo operation
    • – Willingness to be transplanted immediately
  31. Hospice
  32. •Intended for people who have 6 months or less to live
    • •Provided mostly in the home
    • •Provides symptom-relieving care to patients and families (physical, psychological, social, & spiritual)
  33. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
  34. • Active euthanasia: a compassionate decision is made to terminate a person’s life by applying a lethal treatment (illegal in U.S.)
    • • Passive euthanasia: the intentional withholding of treatment that would prolong life
    • •Nonvoluntary euthanasia: If the patient cannot give consent or does not have an advanced directive
    • • Involuntary: action taken against the patient’s will (illegal)
    • • 1994: Oregon passed a law that physicians can prescribe lethal drugs for competent patients who request them
  35. Considerations for death
  36. • Funeral
    • • Burial
    • • Notifying friends and relatives
    • • Death certificates
    • • Obituary and funeral notices
    • • Transportation
  37. Options for Body Disposal
  38. • Burial
    • – Grave or mausoleum
    • • Cremation
    • • Donation
    • – To medical school, must be arranged before death occurs
  39. FTC Funeral Rule
  40. • Funeral officials are required to make an itemized list of goods, services, and prices
    • • Must disclose state law embalming requirements
    • • Must state that a casket is not required for direct cremation
    • • Must make an unfinished wood box or alternative container available for cremation
  41. How infections occur
  42. • The disease process begins when pathogens take over the body.
    • • The 2 most common types of pathogens are viruses and bacteria.
    • • Bacteria are everywhere and do not depend on other organisms to live.
    • • Viruses are dependent on other organisms to live and reproduce.
  43. Bacterial Infections
  44. • Toxic Shock Syndrome and other staphylococcus infections
    • • Lyme disease and other Tickborne infections
    • • Ulcers
    • • Tetanus
    • • Pertussis
    • • Meningitis
    • • Tuberculosis
    • • Pneumonia
    • • Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections
    • • Urinary Tract Infections
  45. Viral Infections
  46. • Chicken Pox, Cold sores, and herpesvirus infections
    • • Viral Encephalitis
    • • Viral Hepatitis
    • • Poliomyelitis
    • • Rabies
    • • Warts
    • • Common Cold
    • • Measles
    • • Mumps
    • • Influenza
    • • Measles, Mumps, Rubella
  47. Viruses
  48. 1. HIV
    • 2. Herpes
    • 3. HPV/Genital Warts
    • 4. Hepatitis B
  49. Bacteria
  50. 1. Syphilis
    • 2. Gonorrhea
    • 3. Chlamydia
    • 4. PID
  51. Herpes Simplex Virus
  52. • At least 40 million Americans infected
    • • Estimated as high as 1 in 4 in the U.S. has herpes
    • • Herpes Types: HSV1 and HSV2Type I
    • • typically found orally
    • • 50 to 80 % of Americans have Type I
    • • Accounts for 1/3 of all new genital cases
    • • Type II
    • • typically found in genital area, rarely found in oral region
    • • Causes 2/3 of all new genital infections
    • • Can be present for many years with no symptoms or no recognition of symptoms
    • • Roughly 2/3 of infections are spread by people who don’t know they have it.
  53. Herpes Risk factors for reoccurrence
  54. • Stress
    • • Menstrual cycle
    • • Decreased immune system
    • – Medications
    • – Disease or Acute illness
    • • Sexual activity
  55. Syphilis
  56. • Transmission is the result of direct contact with infectious lesions, usually during sexual activity.
    • Remains a public health concern and early detection is VERY important. (High numbers locally right now!)
  57. Human Papilloma Virus
  58. • Transmission
    • – Skin to skin contact during sexual intercourse
    • – Mother to baby during vaginal delivery
    • – Skin to mucous membrane (oral sex)
    • – Transmission occurs even when warts not present or visible on the skin
  59. Chlamydia
  60. • Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease
    • • Steady rise in cases for past several years
    • • ChlamydiaIncubation: 2-6 weeks
  61. HPV and Genital Warts
    • –incubation
    • Average time from exposure to lesion expression is approx. 3 months
  62. Ghonorea
    • • A bacterial sexually transmitted disease
    • • Slight decline in NHC in recent years
    • • NC substantially higher than national average in 2003
    • – National rate 116 cases per 100,000
    • – NC rate 181 cases per 100,000

    • • Incubation period
    • – 2-7 days
    • • Transmission
    • – Sexual intercourse
    • • Oral, Anal,Vaginal
  63. Documented transmission of HIV
  64. • Blood
    • • Semen
    • • Vaginal Fluid
    • • Breast milk from mother to child

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