Chaptwe 33-34 Random Notes APUSH

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  1. New Deal
    Term used by FDR in 1932 acceptance speech that came to describe his whole reform program
  2. Brain Trust
    FDR's reform-minded intellectual advisers who conceived much of the New Deal legislation
  3. Hundred Days Congress
    Popular term for the special session of Congress in early 1933 that passed vast quantities of Roosevelt-initiated legislation
  4. Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
    The early New Deal agency that worked to solve the problems of unemployment and conservation by employing youth in reforestation and other socially beneficial tasks
  5. Works Project Administration (WPA)
    Large federal employment program, established in 1935 under Harry Hopkins that provided jobs in areas from road building to art
  6. Blue Eagle
    Widely displayed symbol of the National Recovery Admin. (NRA), which attempted to reorganize and reform U.S. industry
  7. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
    New Deal farm agency that attempted to raise prices by paying farmers to reduce their production of crops and animals
  8. Dust Bowl
    The drought-stricken plains areas from which hundreds of thousands of "Okies" and "Arkies" were driven during the Great Depression

    • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
    • New Deal Agency that aroused strong conservative criticism by producing low-cost electrical power in competition with private utilities
  9. Social Security
    New Deal program that financed old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and other forms of income assistance
  10. Committee or Industrial Organization (CIO)
    The new union group that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board
  11. Security and Exchange Commission (SEC)
    New Deal agency established to provide a public watchdog against deception and fraud in stock trading
  12. American Liberty League
    • Organization of wealthy Republicans and conservative Democrats whose attacks on the New Deal caused Roosevelt to denounce them as "economic royalists" in the campaign of 1936 
    • Court Packing (Judiciary Reorganization Bill) FDR's scheme for gaining Supreme Court approval of New Deal legislation
  13. Hatch Act Law of 1939
    that prevented federal officials from engaging in campaign activities or using federal relief funds for political purposes
  14. Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Former New York governor who roused the nation to action against the depression with his appeal to the "forgotten man"
  15. Eleanor Roosevelt
    Presidential wife who became an effective lobbyist for the poor during the New Deal
  16. Banking holiday (Emergency Banking Act)
    FDR-declared closing of all U.S. financial institutions on March 6-10, 1933, in order to stop panic and prepare reforms
  17. Harry Hopkins
    Former New York social worker who became an influential FDR adviser and head of several New Deal agencies
  18. Father Coughlin
    The "microphone messiah" o f Michigan whose mass radio appeals turned anti-New Deal and anti-semitic
  19. Huey ("Kingfish") Long
    Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make "every man a king" at the expense of the wealthy
  20. Schechter case
    Supreme Court ruling of 1935 that struck down a major New Deal industry-and labor agency
  21. Harold Ickes
    Former Bull Moose progressive who spent billions of federal dollars on public building projects while carefully guarding against waste
  22. John Steinbeck
    Writer whose best-selling novel portrayed the suffering of dust bowl "Okies" in the thirties
  23. John L. Lewis
    Domineering boss of the mine workers' union who launched the CIO
  24. General Motors sit-down strike
    Dramatic CIO labor action in 1936 that forced the auto industry to recognize unions
  25. Alfred M. Landon
    Republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against "The Champ" (FDR) in 1936
  26. Election of 1936
    Lopsided but bitter campaign that saw disadvantaged economic groups lined up in a kind of "class warfare" against those better off
  27. John Maynard Keynes
    British economist whose theories helped justify New Deal deficit spending
  28. Owen Roberts Supreme Court justice
    whose "switch in time" to support New Deal legislation helped undercut FDR's court-packing scheme
  29. FDR president; witty but arrogant, the NEW DEAL, commanding presence
  30. Eleanor Roosevelt wife of FDR, very important woman political figure, as much a politician as FDR
  31. Harry Hopkins
    A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.
  32. Frances Perkins
    secretary of labor, 1st woman cabinet member
  33. Father Coughlin
    catholic priest- "social justice"- anti-deal/anti-semitic and facsist--> did radio broadcasts until shut down by govt.
  34. Huey Long Louisiana Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families
  35. Francis Townshend
    retired physician who devised plans for senior citizens to receive pensions
  36. Harold Ickes
    headed the PWA for unemployment relief, sec of interior
  37. George Norris Norris
    sponsored the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933. In appreciation, the TVA Norris Dam and a new planned city in Tennessee were named after him.[1][2] Norris was also the prime Senate mover behind the Rural Electrification Act that brought electrical service to under-served and unserved rural areas across the United States.
  38. John lewis miner;
    president of United Mine Workers of US, founded the CIO (Committee for Industrial Organizations)
  39. Memorial Day massacre
    strike chaos in South Chicago; police fired and killed some picketers
  40. Alfred Landon
    ran for prez in 1936 vs. FDR...Hoover backed him, he didnt like social security
  41. "parity"
    set price for a product that gave it the same real value it had before in 1909
  42. New Deal
    aimed at the three R's; short range and long term goals--> led to the Hundred Days Congress. Embraced insurance, minimum wage regulations, and restrictions on child labor
  43. Brain Trust
    small group of reform minded intellectuals who wrote FDR's speeches often and other new deal legislation (often young college professors)
  44. The three R's relief, reform, recovery
  45. Glass Steagall Act
    (FDIC) established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation.; were both reactions of the U.S. government to cope with the economic problems which followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
  46. Civilian Conservation Corps
    gave 3 mllion men jobs in fresh air govt. camps--> fire fighting, flood control, etc.
  47. Works Progress Administration
    May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
  48. National Recovery Act
    Authorized the President to regulate banks, and stimulate the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression. "fair competition" ; labor hrs reduced, employment spread, no more yellow dog contracts
  49. Tennessee Valley Authority TVA-->
    arguments for: low cost of electricity , fair rates, employment, low cost housing, flood control; against: "creeping socialism", too federally controlled, lowprices were due to dishonest banking
  50. Social Security
    provide security in old ago in case of another depression,pensions for retired govt. workers
  51. Wagner Act 1935;
    established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
  52. National Labor Relation Board
    reasserted the right of organized labor (unions)
  53. Congress of Industrial Organizations
    led by John Lewis, orginially began as a group of unskilled workers who organized themselves into effective unions. As there popularity grew they came known for the revolutionary idea of the "sit down strike", there efforts lead to the passage of the Fair Labor Standard Act and the organization continued to thrive under the New Deal.
  54. Liberty League
    group of wealthy conservatives who organized to fight socialist "New Deal" schemes
  55. 20th amendment 1932;
    moves inaugural date to Jan. 20th; get rid of lame duck period
  56. Court packing scheme
    FDR tried to appoint lots of new supreme court justices urgently, all based on the fact they were his allies and liked new deal, didnt do it fairly. People were angry he tried to disrupt the checks and balances system
  57. Banking Holiday
    made banks close for 5 days so they could get a chance to reopen with a sounder basis
  58. Hundred Days Congress
    • appointed by FDR to take immediate action for NEw
    • Deal and relief from Depression; frantically passed many essentials for
    • the 3 R's
  59. Fireside Chats frequent
    talks from FDR by fire to convince people to reinvest in the banks and reassure people
  60. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    insured individual deposits up to $5,000
  61. Mary McLeod Bethune
    highest ranking black woman official in FDR administration
  62. Margaret Mead
    studied gender roles& sexuality, cultural anthropologist
  63. Pearl Buck
    novelist who won Nobel Peace prize, advanced humanitarian causes
  64. Sick Chicken Decision
    court unanimously held that Congress could not "delegate legislative powers" to the executive, no congressional control over interstate commerce
  65. PWA public works admin;
    intended for unemployment relief/industrial recovery, headed by sec of interior Harold Ickes
  66. SEC Securities and Exchanges Commission;
    designed as a watchdog agency
  67. Hugo Black justice appointed by FDR, into the New Deal, replaced the oldest justice
  68. Hatch Act
    barred federal officials from active political campaign & use of govt. funds for political purposes
  69. John Maynard Keynes
    British economist helping out FDR
  70. AAA Agricultural Adjustment Admin;
    to establish set prices (parities) for commodities
  71. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    withdrawal of acreage from production was now done by paying farmers to grow soil-conserving crops (ex-beans)
  72. 21st amendment
    repeal of prohibition
  73. lebensraum
    Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
  74. good neighboor policy
    was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America
  75. the axis powers
    The World War II alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan
  76. cash and carry policy
    adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
  77. the atlantic charter
    Roosevelt and Churchill "setting goals for a world after "the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny". Every nation free to choose their own government and live free of fear and want-disarmament and "permanent system of general security-August 1941.
  78. tripartite pact
    Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
  79. anti inflation act
    gave the administration authority to freeze agricultural prices, wages, salaries, and rents throughout the country.
  80. war and african americans
    During the war, the black community demanded flight training, the admission of black women into Red Cross and military nursing units, and desegregation of the armed forces. President Roosevelt, under great pressure, granted the first two demands, but refused to desegregate the military entirely.
  81. war and women and children
    • Before the war few women followed careers. Most jobs for women were 'traditional' roles such as nursing, secretarial or caring jobs. Women in industry Millions of men joined the armed forces, more workers were needed to fill their places in the
    • factories. This changed the traditional views of women. Job opportunities in munitions factories for working-class women allowed them to earn a much higher wage than before. Women became machinists, lumberjacks, dockers and railway engineers
  82. pearl harbor
    1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
  83. lend lease act
    allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
  84. Battle of Midway
    U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
  85. D-DAY
    Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris
  86. Battle of the Bulge
    border between France and Germany. Allies won and could enter W. Germany. last German assault of the war. on the Rhine River
  87. Manhattan Project
    Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
  88. Japanese Interment
    Moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.; racist policy of U.S.; like a nativists; took japanese to prisoner of war camps
  89. Holocaust
    A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
  90. War and Native Americans
    12,000 other soldiers who volunteered for military service during World War I — was Native American.
  91. Charles Dawes
    An american banker and diplomat,that negotiated an agreement with France,Britain,and Germany by which American banks would make loans to Germans that would enable them to meet their reparations payments
Card Set:
Chaptwe 33-34 Random Notes APUSH
2014-03-20 01:33:25
APUSH Notes for 33-34
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