Pathology Final Exam

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Pathology Final Exam
2014-03-20 10:43:57
path final

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  1. Less severe, slow growing NHL in adults that is exclusively b-cell origin
    Follicular lymphoma
  2. Adult NHL: Immunoblastic, aggressive, high grade
    Large B cell Lymphoma
  3. lymphoma that may be caused by prior ebstein barr infection
    Burkitt's lymphoma
  4. Childhood lymphoma: high grade, starry sky appearance, accounts for 40% of CHL, mediastinal mass
    Acute Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
  5. Neoplasm of lymphoid tissue arising in a single none or chain of nodes, most common malignancy in young adults
    Hodgkins Lymphoma
  6. Reed Sternberg cells
    Hodgkins lymphoma
  7. Cancer of plasma cells most often IgG
    Multiple Myeloma
  8. Bence-Jones protein
    Multiple Myeloma
  9. IL-6/OAF effect in multiple myeloma
    increase osteoclast activating factor
  10. Main cause of morbidity in multiple myeloma
    Primary Amiloidosis leading to renal failure
  11. Cancer of WBC that arise in the bone marrow
  12. leukemia derived from T cells and B cells
    lymphocytic leukemia
  13. Leukemia derived from granulocytes
    Myelogenous Leukemia
  14. Transformed B- lymphocytes are myeloperoxidase neg (no production of free radicals)
    Acute Lymphocytic leukemia
  15. Accounts for 90% of childhood leukemias
  16. 90% of all adult acute leukemias
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  17. Auer Rod + and myeloperoxidase +
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  18. leukemia of mature B cell
    Chronic Lymphocytic leukemia
  19. Philadelphia chromosome
    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
  20. leukemia that can cause blast crisis
    Chronic Myeloid leukemia
  21. four main causes of non-inflammatory edema
    • increased hydrostatic pressure
    • Decreased plasma colloid pressure
    • impaired lymph flow
    • renal rentention of salt and water
  22. most common cause of dependent edema
  23. most common cause of anasarca / generalized edema
    Renal failure
  24. Cause of Pulmonary Edema
    RHF increases hydrostatic pressure in alvolar capillaries
  25. increased blood flow to a tissue sympathetic or chemically mediated
    Hyperemia (active)
  26. decreased blood flow away from tissue
    Congestion (passive)
  27. role of prostacyclin
    inhibits platelet aggregation
  28. role ADPase (adenosine diphosphatase)
    inhibits platelet aggregation
  29. Role of t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator)
    converts plasminogen to plasmin which degrades fibrin
  30. flat formed thrombi in endocardium
    Mural Thrombi
  31. most common cause of death in US
    Arterial thrombi causing myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, renal infarction
  32. most common site of venous thromosis
    Superficial leg vein thrombosis
  33. Howmans sign
    pain in foot and ankle caused by deep vein thrombosis
  34. Emboli of arterial origin (left ventricle)
    Systemic emboli
  35. Non-progressive stages of shock
    compensatory mechanisms to maintain blood pressure
  36. Progressive stage of shock
    tissue hypoxia and meabolic acidosis
  37. Irreversible stage of shock
    • enzyme leakage
    • organ shutdown
  38. skin lesions associated with hypercholesterolemia
  39. Fatty Streaks
    early intimal lipid accumulation
  40. Atheromatous plaques
    raised subintimal plaques of necrotic tissue, lipid, extracellular matrix
  41. four components of response to injury hypothesis
    • endothelial cell dysfunction
    • macrophage involvement
    • smooth muscle cell involvement
    • hyperlipidemia
  42. elevated C-reactive proteins
    marker for atherosclerosis
  43. macrophage filled with liquid
    foam cell
  44. most common type of aneurysm
  45. most common area for syphilitic aneurysm
    Thoracic Aorta
  46. congenitally acquired aneurysm
  47. most common cause of aortic dissection (pseudolumen)
    High BP
  48. what type of aneurysm is caused by Marfans syndrome
    Aortic dissection
  49. Degenerative calcification of media of medium and large muscular arteries (non-inflammatory)
    Monckeberg medial sclerosis
  50. intermittant bilateral attacks of ischemia of fingers and toes due to vasospasm (non-inflammatory)
    Raynaud disease
  51. inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels (non-inflammatory)
  52. virus associated with polyarteritis nodosa classic
    Hep B
  53. most common vasculitis  of non-atherosclerotic origin
    Temporal arteritis
  54. Polyarteritis nodosal + granulomatous lesions of the lungs
    Wegeners granulomatosis
  55. Arteritis involving coronary arteries in infants and young children
    Kawasaki Disease
  56. leading cause of heart disease in children in NA and JAPAN
    Kawasaki disease
  57. strawberry hemangioma
    Capillary hemangiomas
  58. port-wine stains
    Cavernous hemangiomas
  59. derived from neoplastic endothelial + stromal cells
    Kaposi sarcoma
  60. Painful purple brown nodules and plaques on hands feet and face
    kaposis sarcoma
  61. bone cells that monitor calcium and phosphorus, increase/decrease receptors of parathyroid hormone, sense stress and activate osteoblast to lay down new bone
  62. what are osteoclast derived from
    monocyte/macrophage system unline others which are osteoprogenitor
  63. depostition of bone in a random fashion
    Woven bone
  64. deposition of bone in an orderly layered fashion
    Lamellar bone
  65. bone spicules that run parallel to long cortical bone (bone marrow bone)
    trabecular bone
  66. premature closing of growth plate caused by an over expression of FGF receptors
  67. most common genetic form of dwarfism
  68. brittle bone disease/A genetic osteoporosis
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  69. abnormally dense bone as a result of failed osteoclastic bone resorption
  70. Non-neoplastic woven bone fromation in damaged muscle tissue
    Myositis ossificans
  71. how does reduced estrogen cause post-menopausal osteoporosis
    estrogen reduces osteoclastic activity thus lack of estrogen increases bone resorption
  72. Chronic bone disorder that begins with excessive osteoclastic activity followed by excessive osteoblastic activity
    Paget disease
  73. most common sites for paget disease lesions
    Axial skeleton and proximal femur
  74. bone disorder of adults due to inadequate mineralization of newly formed bone matrix
  75. Osteomalacia in children due to lack of osteoclastic activity on growth plate
  76. Ischemic death of bone and marrow in the absence of infection
    osteonecrosis, asceptic necrosis, avascular necrosis
  77. bone infection
  78. tuberculous osteomyelitis
    Pott's disease
  79. benign cartilage capped outgrowth "mushroom shaped"
  80. most common primary malignant neoplasm of bone
  81. most common form of axial skeletal malignancy
    Metastatic bone disease
  82. desmoplasia
    abundance of stroma neoplasm will be hard and dense
  83. syndromes which mask the underlying neoplasm
    Paraneoplastic syndrome
  84. Growth promoting genes
  85. anti-oncogenes
    growth inhibiting genes
  86. G-family of proteins that contribute to 30% of all mutations proto-oncogenes
  87. RAS mutation
  88. RB
    retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma
  89. TP53 most common mutation
    Li Fraumeni syndrome
  90. BRCA
    Breast cancer
  91. APC
    Colon cancer
  92. Anti-apoptotic genes over expressed in malignant lymphoma
  93. pro-apoptotic gene that when deleted can lead to malignancy
  94. function of telemorase
    enzyme which prevents chromosome shortening
  95. burkitts lymphome gene expression
    Burkitt's lymphoma
  96. based on degree of differentiation of tumor cells
  97. AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) tumor marker
    liver and testicular carcinoma
  98. CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
    colon, pancreas, breast carcinoma
  99. most common type of breast cancer
    infiltrating ductal carcinoma