Cellular Respiration

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  1. Function of cellular respiration
    To make ATP from glucose
  2. Chemical equation for cellular respiration
    • C6H12O6 +6O2---> 6C2O + 6H2O
    •  ( the reverse of photosynthesis)
  3. What areas of the cell are involved in C.R.?
  4. Describe the structure of the mitochondrion
    dual-membrane structure
  5. Define aerobic
    with oxygen
  6. Define anaerobic
    without oxygen
  7. Four major steps of C.R.
    1.Glycolysis—takes place in cytoplasm of cell

    2.Transition step—in matrix of mitochondria

    3.Kreb’s cycle—in matrix of mitochondria

    • 4.Electron Transport System (ETS)—on inner membrane of
    • mitochondria, i.e. cristae
  8. Describe glycolysis
    Set of reactions in which glucose or another sugar is broken down to two pyruvates for a net yield of two ATP. (adds two ATP to glucose to yield two pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 NADH (net yield of 2 ATP)
  9. What products are produced by glycolysis?
    2 ATP, 2 NADH and 2 Pyruvates
  10. Where does glycolysis (I) take place?
  11. Describe the Kreb's cycle
    Cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl–CoAformation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxidefor a net yield of two ATP and many reduced coenzymes.
  12. What products are produced by Krebs cycle?
    Makes 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (Remaining 4 carbons lost as 4CO2
  13. Where does Kreb's cycle (III) take place?
    matrix of mitochondria
  14. What is the transition or Prep (II) step?
    converts the two molecules of the 3-carbon pyruvate from glycolysis into two molecules of the 2-carbon molecule acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA).
  15. What are the products of the prep step?
    2 NADH, 2 acetyl CoA, and 2 CO2
  16. What is chemiosmosis?
    the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration.
  17. What is the electron transport (IV) system?
    Uses a process known as chemiosmosis to make ATP
  18. What does ETS need?
    Requires 6O2’s, 10 NADH’s and 2 FADH2’s
  19. What are the products of ETS?
    34 ATP and 6H2O
  20. How many ATP are made for each glucose molecule entering glycolysis?
  21. How many times must the Kreb's cycle turn for each glucose and why?
    Twice, because each molecule of glucose is turned into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, and the cycle works the molecules one at at time.
  22. Which is more efficient, aerobic or anaerobic respiration and why?
    Aerobic. Because aerobic respiration produces 36-38 ATP per glucose molecule and the absence of oxygen makes the anaerobic process lucky to get 2 ATP out of the whole cycle. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION STOPS AT GLYCOLYSIS
  23. Side effects of anaerobic respiration
    • Muscle fatigue
    • muscle soreness
    • muscle burn
    • all due to lactic acid
  24. Where do triglycerides, proteins, and carbohydrates enter cellular respiration?
  25. Define catabolism.
    The metabolic process the tears down things.
  26. Define anabolism
    The metabolic process that builds up things.
Card Set:
Cellular Respiration
2014-03-20 05:36:28

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