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Function of cellular respiration
To make ATP from glucose
Chemical equation for cellular respiration
- C6H12O6 +6O2---> 6C2O + 6H2O
- ( the reverse of photosynthesis)
What areas of the cell are involved in C.R.?
Describe the structure of the mitochondrion
Four major steps of C.R.
1.Glycolysis—takes place in cytoplasm of cell
2.Transition step—in matrix of mitochondria
3.Kreb’s cycle—in matrix of mitochondria
- 4.Electron Transport System (ETS)—on inner membrane of
- mitochondria, i.e. cristae
Set of reactions in which glucose or another sugar is broken down to two pyruvates for a net yield of two ATP. (adds two ATP to glucose to yield two pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 NADH (net yield of 2 ATP)
What products are produced by glycolysis?
2 ATP, 2 NADH and 2 Pyruvates
Where does glycolysis (I) take place?
Describe the Kreb's cycle
Cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl–CoAformation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxidefor a net yield of two ATP and many reduced coenzymes.
What products are produced by Krebs cycle?
Makes 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (Remaining 4 carbons lost as 4CO2
Where does Kreb's cycle (III) take place?
matrix of mitochondria
What is the transition or Prep (II) step?
converts the two molecules of the 3-carbon pyruvate from glycolysis into two molecules of the 2-carbon molecule acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA).
What are the products of the prep step?
2 NADH, 2 acetyl CoA, and 2 CO2
What is chemiosmosis?
the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration.
What is the electron transport (IV) system?
Uses a process known as chemiosmosis to make ATP
What does ETS need?
Requires 6O2’s, 10 NADH’s and 2 FADH2’s
What are the products of ETS?
34 ATP and 6H2O
How many ATP are made for each glucose molecule entering glycolysis?
How many times must the Kreb's cycle turn for each glucose and why?
Twice, because each molecule of glucose is turned into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, and the cycle works the molecules one at at time.
Which is more efficient, aerobic or anaerobic respiration and why?
Aerobic. Because aerobic respiration produces 36-38 ATP per glucose molecule and the absence of oxygen makes the anaerobic process lucky to get 2 ATP out of the whole cycle. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION STOPS AT GLYCOLYSIS
Side effects of anaerobic respiration
- Muscle fatigue
- muscle soreness
- muscle burn
- all due to lactic acid
Where do triglycerides, proteins, and carbohydrates enter cellular respiration?
The metabolic process the tears down things.
The metabolic process that builds up things.
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