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organic compounds that are vital to life and indispensable to body functions but are needed only in minute amounts; noncaloric essential nutrients
a.k.a. provitamins: compounds that can be converted into active vitamins.
the thiamin-deficiencey disease, characterized by loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action
the niacin-deficiency disease. symptoms include the "4 Ds": diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and ultimately death
a small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity, Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structure
the vitamin C-deficiency disease
the vitamin D-deficiency disease in children; characterized by abnormal growth of bone and manifested in bowed legs or knock-knees, outward-bowed chest, and knobs on the ribs.
Found in fats and oils of foods and require bile for absorption. Once absorbed, they are stored in the liver and fatty tissues until the body needs them. Because they are stored, we do not need to eat them every day. Includes the vitamins A, D, E, and K
dissolve in water (hard to keep in food because they easily dissolve and drawn away with cooking water, and some are destroyed on exposure to light, hear or oxygen) easily absorbed and excreted from the body. Our bodies do not hold on to these vitamins as well and so we need to eat them every day. Includes vitamin C and the B vitamins.
Vitamin C enhances iron absorption and other compounds such as fiber, tea, and phytates reduce iron absorption.
vitamins oppose the effects of oxidants on human physical functions. the antioxidant vitamins are vitamin E, C, and beta-carotene.
Vitamin A characteristics
- First vitamin to be discovered
- Retinol (active form of vit. A) is pale yellow and found in animal tissues.
- Beta-carotene (it's precursor) ranges in color from pale orange to red.
- Needed to form the pigment in the retina that allows for vision in dim light
- Also needed to maintain the health of epithelial tissue (skin, lungs, GI tract and the corneal cells on the eye's surface)
- maintains integrity of skin and helps resist infection
- critical for normal bone and tooth development
Vitamin A food sources
- best sources of beta carotene (precursor)
- orange vegetables and fruits like:
- carrots, sweet potatoes, and apricots
- Dark, leafy green vegetables like:
- broccoli and spinach
Vitamin A deficiency
night blindness (can mature into irreversible blindness)... known as xerophthalmia
Vitamin A toxicity
only occurs with improper supplementation (ingesting 10 times the RDA for several months) causes: hair to fall out, joint pain, and central nervous system and internal organ problems. (can develop an orange complexion if we ingest high levels of B-carotene)
Vitamin K characteristics
- synthesized by our intestinal bacteria
- needed for blood clotting
- now thought to be tied to calcium metabolism
- shown to decrease urinary calcium
- (these effects suggest a role for vitamin K in the prevention of osteoporosis)
Vitamin K food sources
- Plant foods:
- dark leafy green vegetables.
- Also found in liver and egg yolk
Vitamin K deficiency
- symptoms are rare...
- hemorrhaging in newborn infants (we are born with a sterile GI tract and have to vitamin K-producing bacteria on hand)
- Adults on prolonged antibiotic therapy may kill off their vitamin K-producing gut bacteria and need to pay attention to food sources.
Vitamin K toxicity
excessive blood clotting leads to thrombosis and stroke
- B vitamin
- coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism
- used to release energy from carbohydrate
- also used to transmit nerve impulses and to metabolize alcohol
Thiamin Food sources
- Pork is the single best food source of thiamin
- but there is also:
- sunflower seeds
- dried beans,
- whole grains
- and enriched refined grain products like white bread, white rice and pasta
- disease called beri-beri
- disease of the nervous system
- weakness, poor coordination or ataxia and water retention or edema
- occurs most commonly in alcoholics because alcohol interferes with thiamin absorption
water soluble vitamins are eliminated every day when we eat them in excess, they are relatively non-toxic
Vitamin B12 characteristics
- coenzyme in the synthesis of DNA and RNA
- cell division and tissue growth depend on adequate amounts of these vitamins.
- red blood cells have a rapid turnover so they are essential for the normal growth and formation of these cells
- maintains the myelin sheaths that insulate nerve fibers from each other
Vitamin B12 food sources
- animal products only:
- meat, milk, cheese and fish or eggs
Vitamin B12 deficiency
- associated with a type of anemia in which low numbers of large immature red blood cells predominate.
- division of red blood cells is impossible
- nerve damage
Vitamin B12 toxicity
water soluble vitamins are excreted every day so they are almost non-toxic
Vitamin C deficiency
- earliest signs of vit. C deficiency:
- weakness, poor appetite, anemia, tenderness to touch, swollen inflamed gums, loosening teeth, painful swollen joints, and multiple bruises or subcutaneous hemorrhages.
- Psychological disorders including hysteria, depression and hypochondriasis
Vitamin C food sources
Fruits especially citrus fruits, strawberries, melons, and in some vegetables, especially those that are dark, leafy and green like broccoli and spinach
Vitamin C characteristics
- effects the body either as a coenzyme or cofactor
- present and essential to normal function of all cell organelles including mitochondria
- needed to form collagen
- needed to produce the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from dopamine and it participates in the hydroxylation or activation of certain steroids.
- Powerful antioxidant in the body
- helps the body fight infection
Vitamin C toxicity
- does not appear to be toxic in any amount.
- only symptom seen when consuming amounts greater than 6,000 times the RDA is diarrhea
Functions of water
- Stucture: building material for growth and repair of body tissues.
- Solvent/Transportation medium: delivers the dissolved nutrients and other substances to the cells
- Chemical reaction: medium for all chemical reactions in the cell
- Body temp. regulation: plays a critical role in the regulation of body temp. (e.g. perspiration)
- Lubricant/Body part protectant: act as lubricants for the eyes, nasal passages and protect body parts.
Difference between hard and soft water
- Hard water has high concentration of calcium and magnesium
- Soft waters's principal mineral is sodium
Signs of Dehydration
- with loss of just 1% body weight as fluid:
- headache, fatigue, confusion or forgetfulness, elevated heart rate
- with loss of 2%:
- impairs physical functioning and impedes a wide range of physical activities
Water required to water lost
every pound lost of water/fluid should be compensated with 2 cups or one pint of water
Water needed in relation to kcals burned
1000 ml (one liter) of water is needed for every 1000 kcals burned (or eaten) in a day
Signs and symptoms of iron deficiency
- when red blood cells don't have enough hemoglobin because of iron deficiency, they lose their ability to carry oxygen to our body tissues.. this causes us to feel tired, exhausted and cold all the time.
- Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by smaller, paler red blood cells than normal.
Sources of iron
- liver, beef and other meats
- prunes, prune juice and raisins
- signs include dwarfism, poor sexual development, and night blindness
- poor wound healing
Sources of zinc
- meat, liver, eggs, and poultry (especially dark meat)
- milk and whole grains
Sources of calcium
- canned salmon or sardines (if you eat the bones)
- Blackstrap molasses
- Corn tortillas
- lime is a calcium salt
- can cause rickets
- and in older people osteoporosis
can impair absorption of other divalent cations such as magnesium, zinc, even iron
Functions of iodine
- anion form (iodide) is found in the thyroid gland.
- heat production or metabolism, growth, reproduction and the growth of skin and hair
Food sources of chloride
- in the water supply
- foods high in sodium chloride (salt)
Food sources of sulfur
a reduction of the bone mass f older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile... also known as adult bone loss.