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What is the equation for the formation of the Nitrous acid in situ (in the reaction) in the coupling reaction of Azo Dyes?
NaCl + HNO2
Describe the bonding in Benzene.
- The p-orbitals of all six carbon atoms overlap to create -bonds above and below the ring.Electrons are delocalised.Ring is planar.
- C-C bonds equal length.
- Bond angles are all 120o
How do Halogen carriers make the electrophile stronger?
Accepts a lone pair of electrons from the electrophile.
What is the mechanism for electrophillic addition in alkenes?
What is the reaction in the first step of the generation of NO2+ ( an electrophile ) ?
- HNO3 + H2SO4 → H2NO3+ + HSO4-
What is the reaction in the second step of the generation of NO2+ ( an electrophile ) ?
H2NO3+→ NO2+ + H2O
How is an aldehyde converted to a carboxylic acid?
- The oxidising agent is acidified dichromate ions. ( Cr2O72-)
- Heated under reflux.
How is a secondary alcohol oxidised into a ketone?
- Under reflux
What are the conditions for the nitration of benzene?
- 50O C
- Concentrated H2SO4 Concentrated HNO3
What does 'cis' mean when referring to isomerism?
- Hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atom are on the same side.
- Molecule is bent at the double bond.
What does 'trans' mean when referring to isomerism?
- Hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atom are on different sides.
- Molecule is straight through the double bond.
What are the conditions for the formation of the Diazonium ion?
What is the equation for the formation of the Diazonium ion?
- H+ comes from HCl
What is the equation for the coupling reaction between a Diazonium salt and a Phenol?
- Reactants also NaOH
- Products also NaCl H2O
- Alkali conditions provided by NaOH
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