Sex Steroids

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Sex Steroids
2014-03-20 08:45:00
Sex Steroids
Sex Steroids
Sex Steroids
Show Answers:

  1. Norethindrone is mildly, moderately or more androgenic than other progesins?
    Mildly androgenic
  2. How does Northindrone’s risk of thrombosis compare to other progestins?
    Lower risk of thrombosis than with other progestins
  3. Levonorgestrel and norgestrel are mildly, moderately or more androgenic than other progesins?
    More androgenic
  4. What are the 2nd gen Progestins?
    Levonorgestrel and norgestrel
  5. What generation of Progestins are Levonorgestrel and norgestrel?
  6. What generation of Progestin is Norethindrone?
  7. What are the 1st gen Progestins?
  8. What is the advantage of Levonorgestrel and norgestrel over first generation progestins?
    Longer t1/2
  9. What are the 3rd gen Progestins?
    Desogestrel and norgestimate
  10. What generation of progestins are Desogestrel and norgestimate?
  11. Desogestrel and norgestimate are mildly, moderately or more androgenic than other progesins?
  12. How does Desogestrel and norgestimate’s risk of thrombosis compare to other progestins?
    Greater risk
  13. What are the 4th gen progestins?
    Dienogest and drospirenone
  14. What generation of progestins are Dienogest and drospirenone?
  15. Dienogest and drospirenone are mildly, moderately or more androgenic than other progesins?
  16. How does Dienogest and drospirenone’s risk of thrombosis compare to other progestins?
    Greater risk
  17. What are the advantages of Dienogest and drospirenone over earlier generation progestins?
    Less likely to cause acne and hirsutism
  18. What are the disadvantages of Drosperinone compared to other progestins?
    Risk of hyperkalemia
  19. What are the indications for Estrogen treatment?
    • Primary hypogonadism
    • Postmenopausal hormonal therapy
    • Suppression of ovulation
    • Hirsutism and amenorrhea = excessive androgen secretion
    • Acne
  20. What are the adverse effects of Estrogen therapy?
    • Endometrial cancer (without progesterone)
    • Ovarian cancer (protective effect)
    • Breast cancer (only for those with brca1 gene)
    • Thromboembolism
    • Migraines, gallbladder disease and HTN
    • Nausea, breast tenderness
  21. What are the Indications for Progesterone therapy?
    • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
    • Endometriosis
    • Hormone replacement
    • Contraception
  22. What classes of Fertility Drugs are available?
    • Antiestrogen
    • Human menopausal gonadotropin (menotropins)
    • Chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    • GnRH analogues
  23. What drug is an Antiestrogen?
    Clomiphene (Clomid)
  24. What drugs are human menopausal gonadotropins?
  25. How are GnRH analogues administered?
    Pulsatile q90minutes
  26. What is the MOA of Oral contraceptives?
    • 1) Estrogens and/or Progestins inhibit pituitary function and ovulation via negative feedback on Hypothalamus
    • 2) Thicker postovulation cervical mucus
    • 3) Depresses ovarian function
    • 4) Delays maturation of the endometrium altering implantation
    • 5) Alters transit of ovum
  27. What is a monophasic oral contraceptive?
    Constant doses
  28. What is a diphasic oral contraceptive?
    Constant estrogen; 2 doses of progestin
  29. What is a triphasic oral contraceptive?
    Constant estrogen; 3 doses of progestin
  30. What is a quadriphasic oral contraceptive?
    4 different levels of estrogen/progestin
  31. What are the Biphasic birth control pills?
    Necon 10/11
  32. What are the Triphasic birth control pils?
    • Estrostep Fe
    • Ortho Tri-Cyclen LO
    • Ortho-Novum 7/7/7
  33. What are the Quadriphasic birth control pills?
    • Natazia
    • Quartette (91 days)
  34. What are the progesterone only birth control pills?
    Ortho Micronor, Nor-QD
  35. What is ethinyl diacetate?
    • Norethindrone with 2 acetates
    • Converted in the body to norethindrone
  36. What is Mestranol?
    Prodrug, it gets converted into ethinyl estradiol
  37. Why do some birth control pills have levomefolate?
    • Rraise Folic acid conc.
    • Prevent spina bifida
  38. If you have HTN, why would you not want to use drosperinone?
    Potential androgenic activities, further raise BP
  39. What groups are progesterin only (Norethindrone or Norgestrel) pills a good choice for?
    Thromembolic or Nursing
  40. How should the morning after pill be given?
    • Used to be 2 pills
    • Now, 1 pill and 2 pills if 72 hours after intercourse
  41. What are the adverse effects of Norethindrone or Norgestrel only pills?
    Break through bleeding