Chapter 15

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Chapter 15
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2014-03-22 18:00:13
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Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
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Nervous System and Behavioral Health
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  1. Define

    brain
    • contained within the cranium
    • the center for coordinating body activities
    • **weighs about three pounds
  2. Define

    cerebrum
    • largest portion of the brain
    • divided into left and right hemispheres
    • the cerebrum controls the skeletal muscles
    • interprets general senses such as temperature, pain and touch
    • and contains centers for sight and hearing
    • intellect, memory and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum
  3. Define

    ventricles
    • spaces within the brain that contain a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid
    • the cerebrospinal fluid flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord
  4. Define

    cerebellum
    • located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum
    • its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance
    • also called the hindbrain
    • **named in the third century by Erasistratus, who also named the cerebrum.  Cerebellum literally means little brain and is the diminutive of cerebrum
  5. Define

    brainstem
    • stem-like portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord
    • ten of the 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem
    • *the olfactory nerve (I) and optic nerve (II) do not originate in the brainstem
  6. Define

    pons
    • literally means bridge
    • it connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem
  7. Define

    medulla oblongata
    • located between the pons and spinal cord
    • it contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the mucles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determining blood pressure
  8. Define

    midbrain
    most superior portion of the brainstem
  9. Define
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • clear, colorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord
    • it cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients, and clears metabolic waste
  10. Define

    spinal cord
    • passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra
    • the spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain
    • *its important to remember the spinal cord ends at about L2 because thats why lumbar punctures are done between L3 and L4
    • *at the end of the spinal card are the finger-like projections called cauda equina or horses tail
  11. Define and name

    meninges
    • three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid
    • pia mater
  12. Define

    dura mater
    • tough outer layer of the meninges
    • *means 'hard mother' because it is a tough emebrane
  13. Define

    arachnoid
    • delicate middle layer of the meninges
    • the arachnoid membrane is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space
  14. Define

    pia mater
    • thin inner layer of the meninges
    • *means 'soft mother' because it is a delicate membrane
  15. Name the brain parts
    • cerebrum
    • ventricles
    • cerebellum
    • brainstem
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • midbrain
    • spinal cord
    • meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid
    • pia mater
  16. Define

    nerve
    • cord-like structure made up of fibers that carries impulses from one part of the body to another
    • there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves (10 originate in the brainstem)
    • and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  17. Define

    ganglion
    plural: ganglia
    group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system
  18. Define

    glia
    • specialized cells that support and nourish nervous tissue
    • some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
    • others assist with phagocytosis
    • they do not conduct impulses
    • three types of glia are
    • astroglia
    • oligodendroglia
    • microglia (also called neuroglia)
  19. Define

    neuron
    • a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system
    • destroyed neurons cannot be replaced
  20. cerebell/o
    combining form

    cerebellum
  21. cerebr/o
    combining form

    • cerebrum
    • brain
  22. dur/o
    combining form

    • hard
    • dura mater
  23. encephal/o
    combining form

    brain
  24. gangli/o
    ganglion/o
    combining form

    ganglion
  25. gli/o
    combining form

    • glia
    • gluey substance
  26. mening/o
    meningi/o
    combining form

    meninges
  27. myel/o
    combining form

    • spinal cord
    • bone marrow
  28. neur/o
    combining form

    nerve
  29. radic/o
    radicul/o
    rhiz/o
    combining form

    • nerve root
    • proximal end of a peripheral nerve, closes to the spinal cord
  30. ethesi/o
    combining form

    • sensation
    • sensitivity
    • feeling
  31. ment/o
    psych/o
    combining form

    mind
  32. mon/o
    combining form

    • one
    • single
  33. phas/o
    combining form

    speech
  34. poli/o
    combining form

    gray matter
  35. quadr/i

    **remember that the letter 'i' is the combining vowel, pay attention for correct spelling
    combining form

    four
  36. -iatrist
    suffix

    • specialist
    • physician
    • **remember -logist also means specialist
  37. -iatry
    suffix

    • treatment
    • specialty
  38. -ictal
    suffix

    • seizure
    • attack
  39. -paresis
    suffix

    slight paralysis

    *compare with -plegia meaning paralysis
  40. cerebell/itis
    inflammation of the cerebellum
  41. cerebr/al thromb/osis
    • pertaining to the cerebrum
    • abnormal condition of a clot
    • blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain
    • onset of symptoms may appers from minues to days after an obstruction occurs
    • a cause of ischemic stroke
  42. dur/itis
    inflammation of the dura mater
  43. encephal/itis
    inflammation of the brain
  44. encephal/o/malacia
    softening of the brain
  45. encephal/o/myel/o/radicul/itis
    inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots
  46. gangli/itis

    *yes, there are two "i"s, pay attention to correct spelling
    inflammation of a ganglion
  47. gli/o/blast/oma
    • tumor composed of developing glial tissue
    • the most malignant and most common primary tumor of the brain

    *do not confuse with glioma
  48. gli/oma
    • tumor composed of the glial tissue
    • glioma is used to describe all primary neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord

    **do not confuse with glioblastoma
  49. mening/i/oma
    • tumor of the meninges
    • benign and slow growing
  50. mening/itis
    inflammation of the meninges
  51. mening/o/cele
    • protrusion of the meninges
    • through a defect in the skull or vertebral arch
  52. mening/o/myel/o/cele
    myel/o/mening/o/cele

    *only word in book where the word roots are interchangeable
    • protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord (through a neural arch defect in the vertebral column)
    • **can be spina bifida
  53. mon/o/neur/o/pathy
    disease affecting a single nerve (such as carpal tunnel syndrome)
  54. neur/algia
    pain in a nerve
  55. neur/asthenia
    nerve weakness
  56. neur/itis
    inflammation of a nerve
  57. neur/o/arthr/o/pathy
    disease of nerves and joints
  58. neur/oma
    tumor made up of nerve cells
  59. neur/o/pathy
    disease of the nerves (peripheral)
  60. poli/o/myel/itis
    • inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
    • this infection disease, commonly referred to as polio, is caused by one of three polio viruses
  61. poly/neur/itis
    inflammation of many nerves
  62. poly/neur/o/pathy
    • disease of many nerves
    • most often occurs as a side effect of diabetes mellitus
    • but may also occur as a result of drug therapy
    • critical illness such as sepsis or carcinoma
    • exhibiting symptoms of weakness, distal sensory loss, and burning
  63. radicul/itis
    inflammation of the nerve roots
  64. radicul/o/pathy
    disease of the nerve roots
  65. rhiz/o/mening/o/myel/itis
    inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord
  66. sub/dur/al   hemat/oma
    • pertaining to below the dura mater, tumor of blood
    • hematoma translated literally means blood tumor; however, a hematoma is a collection (pooling) of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel
  67. Alzheimer disease (AD)
    • disease characterized by early dimentia
    • confusion
    • loss of recognition of persons or failiar surroundings
    • restlessness, and
    • impaired memory
  68. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    (ALS)
    Lou Gehrig disease
    progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neurons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles
  69. Bell palsy
    • paralysis of muscles on one side of the face
    • usually a temporary condition
    • signs include a sagging mouth on the affected side and non-closure of the eyellid
  70. cerebral aneurysm
    aneurysm in the cerebrum

    • *aneurysm = Circumscribed dilation of an artery or a cardiac chamber, in direct
    • communication with the lumen, usually resulting from an acquired or
    • congenital weakness of the wall of the artery or chamber.
  71. cerebral embolism
    • an embolus (usually a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque arising from a distant site) lodges in a cerebral artery
    • causing sudden blockage of blood supply to the brain tissue
    • a common cause of cerebral embolism, a type of ischemic stroke, is atrial fibrillation
  72. cerebral palsy (CP)
    • condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis
    • caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
  73. dementia
    • cognitive impairment characterized by a loss of intellectual brain function
    • patients have difficulty in various ways, in cluding
    • difficulty in performing complex tasks
    • reasing
    • learning and retaining new information
    • orientation
    • word finding
    • behavior
    • dementia has several causes and is not considered part of normal aging
  74. epilepsy
    • condition characterized by recurrent seizures
    • a general term given to a group of neurologic disorders
    • all characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain
  75. hydrocephalus
    • increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
    • which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants
  76. intracerebral hemorrhage
    • bleeding into the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain
    • symptoms vary depending on the location of the hemorrhage
    • acute symptoms include dyspnea (difficult breathing), aphasia (absence of speech), diminished level of consciousness, and hemiparesis
    • the symptoms often develop sddenly
    • intracerebral hemorrhage, a cause of hemorrhagic stroke, is frequently associated with high blood pressure
  77. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    • degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic (plaques) patches along the brain and spinal cord.
    • signs and symptoms are variable and fluctuate [clinically the symptoms show exacerbations and remissions] over the course of the disease
    • more common symptoms include fatigue, balance and coordination impairments, numbness and vision problems
  78. Parkinson disease (PD)
    • chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system
    • signs and symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet,
    • rigidity
    • expressionless face
    • and shuffling gait
    • it usually occurs after the age of 50 years
  79. sciatica
    • inflammation of the sciatic nerve
    • causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes
    • can be caused by injury
    • infection
    • athritis
    • herniated disk
    • or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods
  80. shingles

    also called herpes zoster
    viral disease that affects peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves
  81. stroke
    also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    or brain attack
    • occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients
    • the cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die within minutes
    • the arts of the body controlled by the involved cells will experience dysfnction
    • speech, movement, memory and other CNS functions may be affected in varying degrees
    • ischemic stroke is a result of a blocked blood vessel
    • hemorrhagic stroke is a result of bleeding
  82. subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain (usually a ruptured cerebral aneurysm) that rapidly fills the space between the brain and skull (subarachnoid space) with blood
    • the patient may experience in intense sudden headache accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and neck pain (a cause of hemorrhagic stroke)
  83. transient ischemic ttack (TIA)
    mini-stroke
    • sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time
    • the symptoms may be similar to those of stroke, but with TIA the symptoms are temporary and the usual outcome is compete recovery
    • TIAs are often warning signs for eventual occurrence of a stroke
  84. ganglion/ectomy
    also called gangli/ectomy
    excision of a ganglion
  85. neur/ectomy
    excision of a nerve
  86. neur/o/lysis
    separating a nerve (from adhesions)
  87. neur/o/plasty
    surgical repair of a nerve
  88. neur/o/rrhaphy
    suture of a nerve
  89. neur/o/tomy
    incision into a nerve
  90. radic/o/tomy
    rhiz/o/tomy
    incision into a nerve root
  91. cerebr/al   angi/o/graphy
    radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain (after an injection of contrast medium)
  92. CT myel/o/graphy
    • process of recording (scan) the spinal cord (after an injection of a contrast agent into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture)
    • size, shape, and nerve roots are demonstrated
  93. electr/o/encephal/o/gram
    record of the electrical impulses of the brain
  94. electr/o/encephal/o/graph
    instrument used to record the electrical impulses of the brain
  95. electr/o/encephal/o/graphy
    process of recording the electrical impulses of the brain
  96. computed tomography of the brain
    (CT scan)
    • process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of brain tissue images at any desired depth
    • the procedure is painless and particularly useful in diagnosing brain tumors
  97. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine
    (MRI scan)
    • a non-invasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field
    • unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images without the use of radiation
    • it is used to visualize tumors, edema, multiple sclerosis,  and herniated disks
  98. positron emission tomography of the brain
    (PET) scan
    • nuclear medicine imaging technique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity
    • images are projected on a viewing screen
  99. evoked potential studies
    (EP studies)
    a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli

    • *somatosensory evoked potential = the computer-averaged cortical and subcortical responses to repetitive stimulation of peripheral nerve sensory fibers
    • *somatosensory = Sensation relating to the body's superficial and deep parts as contrasted to specialized senses such as sight
  100. lumbar puncture (LP)

    also called spinal tap
    • insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae
    • it is performed for many reasons, including the removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes

    *remember it is done between L3 and L4 because the spinal cord ends about L2
  101. an/esthes/ia
    without (loss of) feeling or sensation
  102. a/phas/ia
    • condition of without speaking
    • los or impairment of the ability to speak
  103. cephal/algia
    also called ceph/algia
    pain in the head (headache)
  104. cerebr/al
    pertaining to the cerebrum
  105. crani/o/cerebr/al
    pertaining to the cranium and cerebrum
  106. dys/phas/ia
    condition of difficulty speaking
  107. encephal/o/sclerosis
    hardening of the brain
  108. gli/o/cyte
    glial cell
  109. hemi/paresis
    • slight paralysis of half
    • right or left side of the body
  110. hemi/plegia
    • paralysis of half
    • right or left side of the body
    • stroke is the most common cause of hemiplegia
  111. hyper/esthesi/a
    excessive sensitivity (to stimuli)
  112. inter/ictal
    (occurring) between seizures or attacks
  113. intra/cerebr/al
    pertaining to within the cerebrum
  114. ment/al
    pertaining to the mind
  115. mono/paresis
    slight paralysis of one (limb)
  116. mono/plegia
    paralysis of one (limb)
  117. myel/o/malacia
    softening of the spinal cord
  118. neur/oid
    resembling a nerve
  119. neur/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the nerves (nervous system)
  120. neur/o/logy
    • study of nerves
    • ranch of medicine dealing with diseases of the nervous system
  121. pan/plegia

    also spelled pamplegia
    total paralysis
  122. par/esthesi/a
    • abnormal sensation
    • such as burning, prickling, or tingling sensation, often in the extremities
    • may be caused by nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
  123. post/ictal
    (occurring) after a seizure or attack
  124. pre/ictal
    (occurring) before a seizure or attack
  125. quadr/i/plegia
    paralysis of four (limbs)
  126. sub/dur/al
    pertaining to below the dura mater
  127. afferent
    • conveying toward a center
    • for example, afferent nerves carry impulses to the central nervous system
  128. ataxia
    lack of muscle coordination
  129. cognitive
    pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgment, memory, and reason
  130. coma
    state of profound unconsciousness
  131. concussion
    • injury to the brain caused by major or minor head trauma
    • symptoms include vertigo,
    • headache,
    • and possible loss of consciousness
  132. conscious
    • awake,
    • alert,
    • aware of one's surroundings
  133. convulsion
    • sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscvles
    • may be present during a seizure
  134. disorientation
    a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity
  135. dysarthria
    the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of a loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central nervous system
  136. efferent
    • conveying away from the center
    • for example, efferent nerves carry information away from the centrel nervous system
  137. gait
    a manner or style of walking
  138. incoherent
    unable to express one's thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner
  139. paraplegia
    • paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord
    • *the person will be paralyzed at and below the point of spinal injury. the higher the injury the higher the paralysis, the converse is true too.  the lower the injury, the lower the paralysis begins.
  140. seizure
    • sudden surge of abnormal electrical activity in the brain
    • resulting in involuntary body movements or behaviors
  141. shunt
    tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid
  142. syncope

    SINK-oh-pay
    fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
  143. unconsciousness
    state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, illness, or drugs
  144. psych/iatrist
    a physician who studies and treats disorders of the mind

    **remember, this is a medical doctor (MD) and can write prescriptions
  145. psych/iatry
    • specialty of the mind
    • branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of mental disorders
  146. psych/o/genic
    originating in the mind
  147. psych/o/logist
    specialist of the mind (not physician)

    **this is not a medical doctor (MD) it is a PhD, and unable to write prescriptions
  148. psych/o/logy
    • study of the mind
    • a profession (not branch of medicine) that involves dealing with the ind and mental processes in relation to human behavior
  149. psych/o/pathy
    (any) disease of the mind
  150. psych/osis
    plural psychoses
    • abnormal condition of the mind
    • major mental disorder characterized by extreme derangement, often with delusions and hallucinations
  151. psych/o/somat/ic
    pertaining to the mind and body (interrelations of)
  152. anorexia nervosa
    • an eating disorder characterized by a disturbed perception of body image resulting in failure to maintain body weight
    • intensive fear of gaining weight
    • pronounced desire for thinness
    • and, in females, amenorrhea
  153. anxiety disorder
    an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness arising typically from the anticipation of unreal or imagined danger
  154. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    a disorder of learning and behavioral problems characterized by market inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
  155. autism

    also referred to as
    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
    or
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
    • a spectrum of mental disorders
    • the features of which include onset during infancy or childhood
    • preoccupation with subjective mental activity
    • inability to interact socially
    • and impaird communication
  156. bipolar disorder
    • a major psychological disorder typified by a disturbance in mood
    • the disorder is manifested by manic and depressive episodes that may alternate
    • or elements of both may occur simultaneously
  157. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by uncontrolled binge eating followed by purging (induced vomiting)
  158. major depression

    also referred to as
    clinical depression
    or
    mood disorder
    • a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, altered sleep patterns, and difficulty with decision making and daily function
    • depression ranges from normal feelings of sadness (resulting from and proportional to personal loss or tragedy) through dysthymia (chronic depressive neurosis) to major depression
  159. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    a disorder characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts that result in the tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals (compulsions) usually as a means of releasing tension or anxiety
  160. panic attack
    an episode of sudden onset of acute anxiety, occurring unpredictably, with feelings of acute apprehension, dyspnea, dizziness, sweating, and/or chest pain, depersonalization, paresthesia, and fear of dying, loss of mind or control
  161. phobia
    • a marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific situation or object
    • such as claustrophobia, the abnormal fear of being in enclosed spaces
  162. pica
    • compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances such as clay or ice
    • this condition is often a result of an iron deficiency
    • when iron deficiency is the cause of pica the condition will disappear in 1-2 weeks when threated with iron therapy
  163. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    • a disorder characterized by an acute emotional response to  traumatic event perceived as life threatening or severe emotional stress such as an airplane crash, repeated physical or emotional trauma, or military combat
    • symptoms include anxiety, sleep disturbance, nightmares, difficulty concentrating, and depression
  164. schizophrenia
    • any one of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortions of reality,
    • disturbance of language and communication
    • withdrawal from social interaction
    • and the disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perceptions, and emotional reaction
  165. somatoform disorders
    disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no know physical cause exists

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