Anatomy Midterm 2

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Anatomy Midterm 2
2014-03-23 00:29:02

to ace the midterm #2
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  1. Stages of Spermatogenesis:
    • 1. Spermatogonium (2n)(Stem cell)
    • 2. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
    • 3. Secondary Spermatocyte (n)
    • 4. Early spermatid (n)
    • 5. Late spermatid (n)
    • 6. Sperm cell (n)
  2. In spermatogenesis the primary spermatocyte (2n) undergoes the process of _____ to become a secondary spermatocyte (n), and then undergoes ___________ to become a spermatid
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
  3. In the testis, Sertoli cells are joined by tight junctions called the _________________
    blood-testis barrier
  4. Sertoli Cells excrete a hormone called ______  to decrease the rate of spermatogenesis
  5. When sperm is released into the lumen
  6. this cell type excretes TESTOSTERONE
    Leydig cels
  7. the site of sperm maturation
    the epididymis
  8. ___________ increase surface area for reabsorption of degenerated sperm
  9. the ductus deferens can store sperm for several months in this region:
    the dilated terminal portion of the ductus deferens
  10. In the female reproductive system, the ____ ligament attaches to the ovaries by a double-layered fold of perioneum called the ____________
    • broad ligament
    • mesovarium
  11. the ___________ ligament - anchors the ovaries to the uterus
    ovarian ligament
  12. the ______ ligament attaches the ovaries to the pelvic wall
    suspensory ligament
  13. The kidneys secrete this hormone to increase blood pressure
  14. the kidneys produce this hormone to regulate Ca2+ levels
  15. The kidneys release this hormone to stimulate erythrocyte production
  16. kidneys are located in an area called _______
  17. 3 layers of tissue that surround the kidney
    • 1) Renal Fascia 
    • 2) Adipose Capsule
    • 3) Renal Capsule
  18. The kidney has 2 distinct regions. Name them
    • Renal Cortex 
    • Renal Medulla
  19. The nephron consists of 2 parts:
    • Renal corpuscle - where blood plasma is filtered
    • Renal Tubule - into which the filter fluid passes
  20. the 2 components of the Renal Corpuscle
    • Glomerulus 
    • Bowman's Capsule
  21. 3 components of the Renal Tubule
    • Proximal convoluted Tubule 
    • Loop Of Henle 
    • distal convoluted tubule
  22. Modified smooth muscle cells on afferent arteriole are called
    juxtaglomerullar cells
  23. spermiogenesis
    maturation of haploid spermatid to a sperm
  24. To produce sperm
  25. The process where sperm is released into the lumen
  26. 6 stages of spermatogenesis
    • 1. Spertmagonium (2n)
    • 2. Primary Spermatocyte (2n)
    • 3. Secondary Spermatocyte (n)
    • 4. Early Spermatid 
    • 5. Late Spermatid
    • 6. Sperm Cell
  27. Describe the pathway of filtration through the kidney (6 steps to Urinary Bladder)
    • Nephron
    • Papillary Duct
    • Major + minor Calyces 
    • Renal Pelvis
    • ureter 
    • Urinary Bladder
  28. The acronym to remember blood flow through the kidney
  29. 3 anatomical regions of the Ureter in the Male
    • Prostatic Urethra 
    • Membranous Urethra 
    • Spongy Urethra
  30. Micturition Reflex
    parasympathetic impulses cause contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urinary sphincter
  31. The penis is composed of 3 cylindrical masses.Each is surrounded by the ________________________
    tunica albuginea 
  32. The surface of the ovaries is covered in this type of epithelium 
    Germinal Epithelium 
  33. The ovaries are capsulated by this dense irregular connective tissue 
    tunica albuginea 
  34. the process of an ovarian egg development 
  35. Describe the 6 stages of FALLICULOGENESIS 
    • 1. Primordial follicle
    • 2. Primary Follicle
    • 3. Secondary Follicle
    • 4. Tertiary Follicle (antrum forms)
    • 5. Ovulating Follicle
    • 6. Corpus Luteum 
  36. the _____ is the stem cell stage of producing an oocyte
  37. Follicular development occurs in childhood. true or false?
    False. Follicular development of the primordial follicle occurs during puberty.
  38. At what stage does the oogonium stop before maturing into an OOCYTE?
    • As a PRIMARY OOCYTE is stops cellular division at
    • meiosis I prophase BEFORE PUBERTY!!!

    but the cell matures into a SECONDARY Oocyte and freezes at metaphase II,and halts to complete meiosis II until fertiliation. 
  39. what stage does the oocyte arrest at until fertilization?
    metaphase II
  40. What type of epithelium lines the GI tract?
    Simple columnar epithelium 
  41. The lamina propria in the GI tract is made of what kind of connective tissue 
    Areolar connective tissue 
  42. This portion of the submucosa is part of the enteric nervous system
    submocosal plexus 
  43. In the GI tract the enteric nervous system in the submucosal plexus regulates?
    • movements of the mucosa
    • vasoconstriction of blood vessels
    • secretory cells of the mucosal glands