a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb and indicates when, how, where, why, or how much
a word that is used to limit a noun, either indefinite (a and an) or definite (the)
a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and a verb
the noun or pronoun that receives that action of the verb and answer the question whom, or what
a word for a person, place, or thing
Object of the preposition
the noun, pronoun, phrase, or clause to which the preposition refers
a group of words that are related but do not contain a verb and a subject together
first person - (singular) mine and my, (plural) our and ourssecond person - (singular) your and yours, (plural) your and yoursthird person - (singular) her, hers, his, and its, (plural) their and theirs
a word such as by, at, to, or from that gives additional information, usually in relationship to something else in the sentence
a word that replaces and refers to a noun
a noun or pronoun that performs the action of the verb. If a sentence contains a verb of being or a linking verb such as be, feel, become, or look, the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described.
the noun that a pronoun refers back to
language that specifies male or female gender using words such as he or she
tells about what someone said
perspective in which the narrator is the one speaking, evidenced by the use of the first person pronoun I or we
perspective in which the narrator is distanced from the story and tells it as an outsider; third-person pronouns such as he, she, or they
perspective in which the writer directly addresses the reader using the pronoun you
words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal. The coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (FANBOYS).
word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clause that contains it dependent on another clause, and therefore of slightly less importance; there are many subordinating conjunctions, but some common ones are because, though, although, while, if, and as if
changing a verb, adverb, or adjective to a noun
Definition - clue context
Ex. In his woodworking, he used a type of file known as a RASP.
Description - clue context
Allen is a MALCONTENT; he is constantly changing jobs, moving to different apartments, and trading in cars. He complains and expresses his dissatisfaction with every aspect of life.
Example - clue context
The menu listed such DELICACIES as frog legs, octopi, and chocolate-flavored worms.
Synonym - clue context
The OPHTHALMOLOGIST, or eye doctor, prescribed eyedrops.
Antonym - clue context
Unlike the sophisticated life in the city, life in Scottsville was a QUAINT existence.
Comparison - clue context
Elliott is wealthy and generous as is his father, who is a PHILANTHROPIST.
Contrast - context clue
The instructor would often DEVIATE from the topic, rather than remain focused on the subject he introduced at the beginning of the lecture.
Explanation - context clue
the unfamiliar word is defined in the sentence through an explanation of a situation
EX.He was awarded a degree POSTHUMOUSLY; he died a month before graduation.
the history of a given word or its origin
state or condition
ex. amnesia, democracy
Suffix-ic, -ical, ac
having to do with
ex. endoscopic, physical, cardiac
ex. nationalism, activism
ex. orthodontia, unorthodox
ex. terrace, terrarium, extraterrestrial
a sentence that contains only one clause that has a complete meaning
a clause that has a complete meaning
a clause that is made dependent or incomplete because of the addition of a subordinating conjuction
a sentence that contains one or more dependent clauses
a word that is sometimes a verb but not acting as a verb in a particular sentence
a sentence containing two (or more) independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon
ie and ei words
i before e, except after c- or when sounded like a as in words neighbor and weigh
Suffixes for words ending in y
If a word ends with a y PRECEDED BY A VOWEL, keep the y adding a suffix.If a word ends with a y PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT, change the y to an i before adding a suffix.
Suffixes for words ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern
If a word has ONE SYLLABLE and ends with a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern, then double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.If a word has MORE THAN ONE SYLLABLE, BUT THE ACCENT IS ON THE LAST SYLLABLE, then double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.
Suffixes for words ending in c
If a word ends in a c and a suffix beginning with e, i, or y is added, then the letter k should be inserted following the letter c.
verb - to have an effect on
noun - something that is brought about by a cause
noun - a slope that angles upward
noun - agreement
adjective - everyone or everything is ready
adverb - by this time
adjective - everyone in a group
adverb - entirely, completely
noun - a structure used in worship
verb - to change
verb - to carry or support
verb - to expose
noun - a leading or governing city
noun - a building that houses a state's lawmakers
verb - to use as an example; to quote
noun - a location
noun - an element that completes
noun - a remark of appreciation
verb - ceasing to live
verb - coloring a fabric
adverb - forward in place or time
noun - the element in a series that is next after the third element
noun - chief or leader
noun - a belief or a rule of conduct
adjective - not moving
noun - paper for writing letters
adjective - belonging to them
contraction of they are
adjective - in that place
preposition - indicates movement or intent
adverb - also
adjective - something that has two units
Capitalize the cardinal direction and their compounds when they refer to particular regions
Ex. West Canadathe South
Capitalize the names of specific organizations, companies, institutions and government bodies
Spanish Club (organization)Ford Foundation (company)University of New Mexico (institution)Department of Defense (government body)
Capitalize the names of historical events or documents, months, days of the week, special events, and calendar items.
French Revolution (historical event)Atlantic Pact (historical document)August (Month)Sunday (day of the week)World Series (special event)Christmas Eve (calendar item)
Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and religions
Capitalize the first word in every line of poetry and the first word of a complete quotation
Twinkle, twinkle little star,How I wonder what you are.Mr. Jackson said, "You will always remember your high school days with fond recollection."
Capitalize the names of season only if they are personified or are part of a specific event. Otherwise, they are not capitalized.
(1) "Heralded in trumpet blare, comes Spring across the threshold in scented frock and maiden hair."(2) My favorite season is summer.(3) I can't wait for the Winter Olympics.
used to suggest hesitation, attempts to conceal something, signal a trailing or unfinished thought, indicate difficulty in directly expressing oneself, or denote the omission of part of an original material within a quotation
Any two words or phrases in a series of three or more should be separated by a comma.When a dependent clause precedes an independent clause in a complex sentence, a comma should separate the two.The introductory words yes and no should be set apart by commas.Nonrestrictive phrases and nonrestrictive clauses (groups of words that do not contain information that is necessary to interpreting that meaning of the sentence) should be offset by commas.Use commas to separate a quotation from interrupting text.A comma should be used to separate a city from state. In text, a comma should also follow the state.Commas should be used within dates to separate two textual elements or two numerical elements that appear next to each other.
semicolon may be placed between two related, independent clauses.Use a semicolon to precede conjunctive adverbs, such as however or therefore, that connect sentences elements of equal rank.When a sentence contains a series of elements that contain one or more commas, the division between the elements should be marked with a semicolon.
Colons [ : ]
A colon should be used to herald something that is to immediately follow an independent clause. Often, this information comes in the form of a list.The colon should be used to separate the hour from the minute when expressing standard time.A colon should follow the salutation of a formal letter.A colon should be used between the title and subtitle of a book.A colon should be used between the title and subtitle of a book.A colon can be used between two independent clauses if the second explains, expands upon, or illustrates a point made in the first
Hyphens [ - ]
Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line when it is necessary for stylistic purposes and the entire word will not fit on one line. If this must be done, words should be divided between syllables and writers should avoid leaving fewer than three letters on either line. If possible, hyphenated words should be divided at the hyphen.Use hyphens with spelled-out compounds numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine if they function as adjectives.Use hyphens with fractions that are spelled out and used as adjectives.A hyphen should be used to join any prefix to a proper adjective or noun.Although many prefixes do not require the use of hyphens, there are some prefixes that should always be hyphenenated. Consult style guides for individualized, complete lists.Hyphenate a compound adjective when it precedes the word it modifies and when doing so helps to clarify.Use a hyphen to prevent confusion or awkwardness.
Parentheses [ ( ) ]
Parantheses are used to enclose supplementary or explanatory material that interrupts the main sentence.If the material inside of a pair of parentheses is a question, then a question mark should be inserted within the parentheses. If the material is an exclamation, an exclamation point should be inserted inside within the parentheses. This applies regardless of where the parentheses are located within the sentence.If the material withing a pair of parentheses is a complete sentence that is not located within another sentence, a period should be added before the closing parenthesis.
Originally written for children, her book as amused many generations of readers.
the introductory prase should be immediately followed by the noun i tmodifies.
grammatically correct: He spoke quickly and tried a new way to persuade me; he started to concentrate on ways to improve my company's bottom line.
using a semicolon to separate two independent clauses is appropriate, and the first word following the semicolon should not be capitalized unless it is a proper noun.
means discerning or wise
some men like to keep handkerchiefs in their suit pockets.
nouns that end in an "f" or "fe" are typically made plural by changing the end to "ves," those that use "cheif" typically only take an "s" to create the plural form.
grammatically correct: A few cookies or a sandwich satisfies my hunger after school.
when using "or" with a compound subject, the verb should agree with the subject that immediately precedes it. Since the sentence has a singular verb "satisfies," this option fits the context.