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High Rise Class E Office Buildings
- 75 feet or more in height
- 2,000 sq ft to 3,000 sq ft
- Class E- primarily occupied for transacting business
High Rise Class E built before 1945?
PLENUM TYPE CEILINGS ARE GENERALLY NOT FOUND
EXTERIOR WINDOWS OPENABLE
CORE CONSTRUCTION NOT USED
Class E high rise before 1968
- lack of compartmentation
- spray on fireproofing material
- exterior curtain walls-space of 6 to 12 inches requiring additional firestopping
- CEILING PLENUMS ARE EXTENSIVE AND LACK FIRESTOPPING
HVAC-USUALLY MULTI FLOOR SYSTEMS
- Windows are usually NOT OPENABLE
- FIRE TOWERS NOT REQUIRED
- Q DECKING- light weight floors
CORE CONSTRUCTION USED
High Rise Built between 1945-1968
FIRE TOWERS REQUIRED
mix pre 1945 and post 1968
What provides the greatest assistance to FD members who are being deployed to control the fire and conducting the primary search??
control movement of smoke and limit spread of fire
What is the most common air conditioning system found in High Rise??
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
Processing equipment supplies air to more than one floor
What are the 3 sub systems of HVAC system?
- PROCESSING equipment
- SUPPLY of processed air to the floors of the building
- RETURN of the air from the floors to be reprocessed
Where is the processing of the air usually done??
floors of the building where the MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM is located
The supply of processed air to floors is accomplished by the following??
- Supply air shaft
- fire dampers
- supply air ducts
- air diffusers
The return of air from the floors to be reprocessed is accomplished by the following??
- return air inlets
- return air plenums
- Fire dampers
- smoke detectors return air shaft
After determining the status of HVAC systems in the buildings, any systems that have not been automatically shut down shall???
- Be MANUALLY SHUTDOWN
- both SUPPLY AND RETURN FANS
In some systems , the smoke detectors only shut down the supply fans and allow the return air fans to remain operating...what should be done??
RETURN FANS will have to be shut down MANUALLY
What must be done before any further action can be taken with the HVAC system??
FIRE FLOOR MUST BE ACCURATELY DETERMINED
How do we place HVAC system in non circulating mode???
- 1. OPENING all outside air supply dampers
- 2. CLOSING all mixing dampers
- 3. OPENING all exhaust dampers
When can you activate SUPPLY FANS?
after Fire floor has been determined and the fan is located in an HVAC zone that DOES NOT include the fire area
What are flexible connectors and how can they cause problems at a fire?
used between ducts and the periphery air treatment equipment on the floor above
fire entering the plenum can extend from one floor to another when these flexible connectors fail
The IC should obtain the following information from the building engineer on HVAC system?
- location of the MER floors and zones they supply
- special HVAC zone in the building (theaters, restaurants, computer rooms)
- number of return air shafts and location
- common return airshafts
- if supply/return dampers on each floor are controllable from a central location
- if there is a periphery air supply system
The 1968 building code requirements for a manual fire pump?
OVER 300 FEET HIGH
THE 1938 BUILDING CODE requirements for a manual fire pump?
OVER 250 feet high
Pump room locations is usually located??
CELLAR OR SUB CELLAR
The bypass valve must be in what position?
CLOSED (STEM IN)
If bypass valve is not readily discernible...it is still permissible to start pumps..how is the efficiency of pump affected??
25 % loss in 8" riser
45% loss in 6" riser
How can contact be maintained by member assigned to operate Fire Pumps?
or Fire Command station phone located in pump room
When a building is equipped 2 manual fire pumps, as is the case in most high rise buildings, EACH PUMP WILL HAVE ITS OWN CONTROL PANEL, how many pumps do we use/??
BOTH PUMPS SHALL BE STARTED AND USED
What is the 4 step procedure for starting fire pumps using the control panel??
Close knife switch to ON position
close circuit breakers and power 'ON' light will glow
push starting button and pump ' ON' light will glow
Move selector lever to desired position increasing pump speed and thereby increasing pressure
How can temperature variations (occur in periphery of building), due to weather changes, affect HVAC system??
they require supplementary treatment of the air
HOW IS THIS supplementary treatment accomplished??
a. air supply may be from the main air supply shaft or from separate periphery air supply shaft
b. air supply is ducted through the plenum on the floor below to the periphery of the building
c. flexible connectors used between the ducts and the periphery air treatment equipment on floor above
D. air then passed through air treatment equipment
e. air is returned through the normal air return system
What is a good 'rule of thumb' at high rise ops?
have a separate engine supply the standpipe system for each handline in operation
When shall a 10-76 signal be transmitted??
Report of a Fire is CONFIRMED
Any fire in a high rise office building which required the stretching and OPERATING of 1 hoseline will necessitate the use of??
When is a second alarm transmitted?
ANY VISIBLE fire or smoke emanating through the exterior skin of the building
or when a SERIOUS fire has been verified
Who shall the firs arriving unit (the IC) establish contact with at a High Rise Office building??
Fire Safety Director or EVACUATION SUPERVISOR
What shall the IC inform the Fire Safety Director to do??
REMAIN IN THE LOBBY (MUST)
What shall the IC obtain from the Fire Command Station and Fire Safety Director??
The BIC-BUILDING INFORMATION CARD
THE FLOOR PLAN for the fire floor
What is the duty of the 1st and 2nd arriving engines??
TEAMED TO OPERATED 1ST LINE
What is the duty of the 3rd and 4th arriving Engine companies??
TEAMED TO OPERATED 2ND LINE
What is the assignment of the CFRD Engine company and what shall they bring?
assigned to FIRE SECTOR SUPERVISOR/BRanch director
CFRD eQUIPMENT AND FORCIBLE ENTRY TOOLS
What is the duty of the 1st arriving ladder?
search and evacuate Fire floor
Duty of 2nd arriving ladder?
augment search and evacuation of the fire floor
3rd arriving ladder?
search and evacuate the floor above the fire
4th arriving ladder?
assigned similarly to operate on the upper floors and to initiate the search of the ATTACK STAIRWAY
assigned to the Fire Sector Supervisor/BRanch Director
Who shall be assigned Fire Sector Supervisor?
2nd Arriving BC
What makes up the Fire Sector/Branch?
FIRE FLOOR AND FLOOR ABOVE
Who selects the attack stairway?
Can a hoseline be operated from a stairway without being cleared of building occupants??
NO..MUST CLEAR STAIRWAY OF BUILDING OCCUPANTS
A evacuation stairway must be selected, preferably ??
FIRE TOWER, if available
What is required to be evacuated INITIALLY?
FIRE SECTOR (fire floor and floor above)
All stairways (especially ATTACK STAIRWAY) must be searched, when?
BEFORE and AFTER fire operations
Ventilation by the removal of windows on the fire floor or other floors is...??
NOT an initial consideration, it should be delayed
all horizontal ventilation tactics shall be controlled by IC
Fire Sector or Branch shall be equipped with the following??
- SCBA for all personnel
- Copy of the floor plan
- FIRE SECTOR/BRANCH LOG
- POST RADIO
Who shall establish hard wire communications with ICP?
- Fire Sector/Branch
- Forward Staging Area
- Forward Triage Area
- Search and Evacuation Group
Command Channel shall also be used
The Fire Sector Supervisor shall establish HT communications with units under his command, on what channel??
units under his command shall NOT contact ICP unless URGENT
command channel- ICP and Forward Staging Area
Search and Evacuation Supervisor??
- Secondary tactical- with his units
- units shall NOT contact ICP unless URGENT
command channel- ICP
Where is the Forward Staging Area located? What is its purpose?
designate location on an upper floor
provides logistical support to all resources assigned to Fire Sector and SAE Group
What is the job of the LOBBY CONTROL UNIT?
recall, control, and operate elevators/recall and search all elevator cars terminating at the lobby
control all building access points and direct personnel to correct stair/elevator or route
direct building occupants and exiting personnel to proper ground level safe areas
What is the job of the SYSTEM CONTROL UNIT?
monitor and control Class E communications system/HVAC SYSTEM and any other building systems as directed by IC
evaluate COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS- HTs, hardwire phone, cellular phones, post radios, cross band repeaters and building repeaters
What is the duty of the High Rise support Unit?
transport equipment via elevator to the FORWARD STAGING AREA
Where is the Staging Area?
OUTSIDE THE STRUCTURE- away from the building
responding resources report and receive initial assignments
Where is the Forward Triage Area located?
environmentally safe location on a floor BELOW the forward staging area
First arriving OFFICER shall establish the ICP, in the event that he leaves the ICP before the arrival of a CHIEF, what should he do??
designate a member to staff the ICP, preferably the LCC OF THE FIRST ARRIVING LADDER COMPANY
While staffing the ICP, what should this member do?
NOTE the units entering and leaving the lobby and their destination
How many spare cylinders should be maintained at FORWARD STAGING AREA?
AT LEAST 20
When an Engine company reports to the forward staging area, what shall they bring?
- SCBA for each member
- standpipe kit and a nozzle
- length of hose per FF
- SPARE SCBA CYLINDER for each member
LADDER company reporting to forward staging area should bring?
- SCBA for each member
- 2 SETS of FE tools and 6 ft hooks
- search and utility ropes
- spare SCBA CYLINDER FOR EACH MEMBER
When buildings have fixed stairwell pressurization systems, and this system is activated, what shall the IC do??
continue operations with the system ON
fixed system should NOT Be augmented by Positive pressure vent fans
Buildings that have a FIXED stairwell pressurization system shall be...?
ENTERED INTO CIDS
Who can initiate the use of PPF's?
Natural Ventilation (without the use of Fans) , can be used when?
once the fire is EXTINGUished, opening doors at the top and bottom of the stairway
Fans will increase or decrease stack effect??
increase stack effect
What is positive stack effect?
upward movement of air in a vertical shaft
increases as outside air temperature decreases in relation to inside building temperature
What is negative stack effect?
the downward movement of air in a vertical shaft
outside temperature is greater than inside temperature..(greatest effect, temp. above 90 degrees F)
Are fire Towers recommended for use as Fire attack stairway?
When should we use Horizontal ventilation?
FIRE SECTOR SUPERVISOR/Branch Director shall be equipped with?
- at least 2 HT's
- SCBA for all members assigned to the sector
- copy of the floor plan
- Fire Sector log
- POST RADIO
Duties of Fire Sector Supervisor?
A. ensure attack stairway has been cleared of building occupants at least 5 floors above the fire
B. ensure the evacuation stairway is maintained safe
C. review ops of first arriving units to determine need for change in tactics
d. advise the IC as to the need for and the placement of the second line
e. advise IC as to the need for additional units, SCBA cylinders, additional equipment (prior to Forward staging Area)
f. after Forward Staging area, obtain items listed in "E" from FSA manager
G. advise IC of the need for additional evacuation of the floors above the Fire Sector
What is the SAE group responsible for?
Search and examination of areas in the building above the Fire Sector/Branch
How shall the SAE Group Supervisor determine his location?
A. Fire location and severity
B. HT effectiveness
C. If possible, choose location on a floor which is NOT serviced by the same elevator bank AS FIRE FLOOR AND AT LEAST 5 floors above the fire floor
What shall the SAE supervisor be equipped with?
- at least 2 HT's
- post radio
- scba for all members
- spare SCBA
- floor diagram, pad and pen
Where is the Fire Command Station located?
lobby of building, near elevator control panel
Loudspeakers, (operated from the fire command station)located on ?
- ALL FLOORS
- ALL ELEVATORS
- ALL STAIRWAY ENCLOSURES
Floor warden stations are located where?
On each Floor and provide 2 way communications with the fire command station
Fire Command stations have 2 way communication with the following??
- FLOOR WARDEN STATIONS
- MECHANICAL CONTROL CENTER
- AIR HANDLING CONTROL ROOMS
- ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOMS
PA SYSTEM TO???
collectively or selectively
Floor warden stations have equipment to make announcements to..?
floor where it is located
At least 1 manual fire alarm sending station shall be located in each path of escape in each story of a building, additional stations shall be installed so that no point on any floor shall be more ???
than 200 feet from the nearest station
activation shall cause:
- automatic transmission to the FD via central station
- visual and audible signal at fire command station, mechanical control center and assigned location of Fire Safety Director
- sounding of alarm on the fire floor and floor above
First Arriving Ladder company should obtain as much info from FSD, as to?
- LOCATION OF FIRE
- evacuation procedures implemented
- status of elevators
- access stairs serving the fire floor
Prior to leaving the lobby, 1st due truck should?
- determine elevator bank and place in Firemen service
- obtain floor plan of fire area, if only ONE COPY, DO NOT REMOVE IT
- obtain keys to gain access
- ensure ICP is staffed by FD member
conduct preliminary inspection of the exterior of building--persons in distress, smoke or fire, need for exterior ops
Who should select attack stairway?
First due truck
What elevator car should the 2nd due truck use?
IF POSSIBLE, the elevator car used by the 1st due truck
Which elevator car should the 3rd due truck use?
if possible, elevator car staffed by 1st or 2nd due truck (avoid losing member)
3rd due truck duties?
- determine number of stairways serving fire floor and floor above
- proceed to floor above via stairway OTHER THAN ATTACK STAIRWAY
- determine which stairway is best stairway to be used by the occupants for evacuation and advise the ICP
- examine all stairways for occupants and smoke
- remove all occupants from attack stairway for a reasonable distance above the fire floor
- conduct primary of floor above
If difficulty is encountered (3rd due truck) in clearing the attack stairway of occupants, whom shall the Officer advise?
FIRST ARRIVING LADDER COMPANY or the Fire Sector supervisor or fire branch director
The 4th due truck shall report to ICP with??
each member equipped with extra SCBA
4th due truck shall obtain an elevator that...?
provides safest acces to the roof
fire on a floor not serviced by high rise bank-high rise bank used if it is in a blind shaft
fire is on a floor serviced by high rise bank-proceed to location below fire and use a stairway other than ATTACK
4TH DUE TRUCK TO ROOF, REPORT?
- Smoke and heat conditions
- means for roof ventilation
- fire or occupants at windows visible from roof
do not undertake roof ventilation, unless ORDERED BY IC
CONDUCT PRIMARY OF TOP 5 FLOORS
What is a logical assignment after roof ops, for 4th due truck?
UPPER FLOORS of elevator bank serving the fire floor
4th due truck shall operated under whom?
IC, until SAE group is established
First Arriving Engine Company shall remain at the ICP UNTIL?
1ST ARRIVING LADDER COMPANY has verified fire location
Second due Engine does what??
PROVIDES COMMUNICATION LINK between lobby and the fire area pending the establishment of fire sector/branch..
POST RADIO and report with his company to standpipe outlet (1st line)
provide communication between standpipe outlet and nozzle
3rd and 4th Engine shall operate under?
FIRE SECTOR SUPERVISOR
- 2nd line used for:
- reinforce position of 1st line
- protect the position of the first line
- protect the search and evacuation of fire floor
- contain and confine spread of fire around core