Card Set Information

2014-03-21 07:31:25

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  1. meiosis
    Nuclear division process that halves the chromosome number. Basis of sexual reproduction.
  2. mitosis
    Nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number. Basis of body growth, tissue repair and replacement in multi-celled eukaryotes; also asexual reproduction in some plants, animals, fungi, and protists
  3. gametes
    sex cells: eggs or sperm
  4. What is cell division used for?
    growth, repair and reproduction
  5. Sex chromosomes
    The 23rd pair...homologs can be different XX or XY
  6. autosomes
    every pair of chromosomes except the sex chromosomes. they deal with everything else...homologs are alike
  7. binary fission
    how bacteria reproduce. They duplicate their DNA and split
  8. How many kinds of cell division are there and what are they used for?
    Two: mitosis, and meiosis. mitosis reproduces every other body cells (growth (cells added for growth--not just getting cells bigger), repair and reproduction in single-celled organisms). Meiosis is for sexual reproduction
  9. Karyokinesis
    division of the nucleus
  10. Cytokinesis
    division of the cytoplasm
  11. Describe reproduction in bacteria. What is it called?
    binary fission. Duplicate their DNA (aka chromatin) then split
  12. What is chromatin?
    is DNA and associated proteins in a long, thin, hair-like form, rarely visible with a microscope
  13. What are chromosomes?
    A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of acell’s genetic information
  14. Compare and contrast chromatin and chromosomes
    chromatin is long, thin and hair-like DNA that is rarely visible with a microscope. Chromosomes are the shortened, condensed, coiled DNA that is readily visible with a microscope.
  15. centromeres
    Constricted region in a eukaryotic chromosome where sister chromatids are attached.
  16. homologous pair
    Chromosomes that have 2 of each chromosomes. They are two copies of the same chromosome
  17. sister chromatids
    One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome
  18. haploid (N)
    when cells have only half of the homologous pairs of chromosomes (sex cells)
  19. diploid (2n)
    when cells have both members of homologous pairs (mitosis)
  20. homologous chromosomes
    chromosomes that have 2 copies of each
  21. karyotype
    pictures scientists take of chromosomes which they cut and paste to match pairs. Example amniocentisis
  22. Describe the cell cycle
    • G1 (growth phase)
    • S (dna duplicates)
    • G2 (2nd growth phase)
    • M (Mitosis)
    • (G1, S, G2 are interphase. cells stay in interphase most of the time)
  23. 4 stages of mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  24. Mitosis prophase
    • –Centrioles
    • separate (no centrioles in plants)

    • –Spindle
    • fibers form

    • –Nuclear
    • envelope and nucleolus disappears

    • –Chromatin
    • thickens into chromosomes
  25. mitosis metaphase
    • –Spindle
    • is complete

    • –Sister
    • chromatids line up & down the middle along the cell’s equator
  26. mitosis anaphase
    Sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell
  27. runaway cell division
  28. neoplasm
    helps cancer cells divide uncontrollably
  29. tumor
    neoplasm forming masses of abnormal cells
  30. benign tumor
    In a sheath, contained
  31. malignant tumors
    not in a sheath and spreads
  32. tumor suppressor genes
    Brac 1 and Brac 2
  33. metastasis
    malignant cells spreads to and disrupts function in other body tissues
  34. mitosis telophase
    • –Cytokinesis
    • takes place

    • –Spindle
    • fibers dissappear

    • –Nuclear
    • envelope and nucleolus reform

    • –Chromosomes
    • unwind and uncoil back into chromatin
  35. germ tissue
    sex organ cells (testes and ovary)
  36. somatic cells
    regular body cells