Sociology Test 1
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Who invented the term sociology and is generally considered the founder of the discipline?
According to C. Wright Mills, what is the sociological imagination?
the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society; history vs. biography
According to C. Wright Mills what is the difference between troubles and issues?
troubles are personal; issues are public
What does Berger mean by the "world taken for granted"?
society being seen only on the surface
According to Berger, what is the task of the sociologist and who should not be a sociologist?
sociologists peel away the layers, and people who are not curious or open minded should not be sociologists
What does Berger mean by culture shock minus geographical displacement?
that you can be shocked in your own back yard by things that happen around you
What is structural violence and how does it relate to Acephie and Chou Chou (Know Farmer article in detail)
a form of violence where some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs; Acephie died of AIDS and Chou Chou of political torture
What historical factors led to the rise of sociology as a discipline?(Know in general)
scientific revolution, Enlightenment, American/French/Industrial Revolutions
Emile Durkheim: Egoistic Suicide, Altruistic, Fatalistic and Anomic
more connectedness = less suicide
- egoistic: too individualistic
- altruistic: too much integration, self=society
- fatalistic: passions choked by oppression
- anomic: lack of meaning
Karl Marx: What is Marx's critique of capitalism; bourgeoisie? What is the role of class conflict and capital in modern society?
- Karl Marx saw capitalism as a progressive historical stage that would eventually stagnate due to internal contradictions and be followed by socialism
- bourgeoise: ruling class exploited
- proletariat: was exploited
- our existence is entangled with commodity
Max Weber: Value Free and Ethical Neutrality?What is a bureaucracy and what does Weber mean by the rationalization of modern life?
bureaucracies are impersonal and rules become more important than the individual
modern life is rationalized because all human activity falls prey to logic/efficiency/standardization
What is traditional, rational-legal and charismatic domination according to Weber?
- traditonal: doing something because it's always been done that way
- rational-legal: obedience given to a set of uniform principles
- charismatic: following an individual because of charm
What is Structural Functionalism and how does it explain the workings of society?
sees society as a complex system of interrelated parts that work together to promote order (marriage, education, work)
What is Conflict Theory perspective and how does it explain the workings of society?
social order is maintained by domination and power
What is Symbolic Interaction and how does it explain the workings of society?
an individual's ability to use symbols to create meanings for the world around him. Individuals use language and thought to accomplish this goal
Who was Robert K Merton and what does Manifest and Latent Functions mean?
What is culture?
ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people's way of life
Material culture and nonmaterial culture?
- material: physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture
- nonmaterial: ideas, beliefs, values, and norms that may help shape our society
Characteristics of culture?
culture is social, learned, shared, passed down, accumulative, and varies from society to society
verbal and sometimes written representations that are culturally specific and convey meaning of the world
Norms, Folkways, Mores, Laws, Taboos, and Social Sanctions?
- Norms: rules governing behavior (informal: unspoken, formal: official)
- Folkways: everyday behaviors that carry little consequence (burping in public)
- Mores: strict norms that are severely punished when broken (not eating humans)
- Laws: written down and enforced by an official law enforcement agency
- Taboos: unspeakable violation of sacred norms (sex with children)
- Social sanctions: social control processes
Beliefs and values?
- belief: mental acceptance of a claim as truth regardless of supporting or contrary empirical evidence
- values: the moral principles and beliefs or accepted standards of a person or social group
Dominant Culture, Subculture, and Counter Culture?
- Dominant: culture with most power
- Subculture: part of dominant culture but has own values and language
- Counterculture: defies at least one aspect of dominant culture
Global Culture and Popular Culture?
- global: the habits and heritages of societies around the world
- pop: commercial culture based on popular taste
Culture lag/Sources of cultural change?
culture lag: slowness in the rate of change of one part of a culture in relation to another
lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies
Charles Horton Cooley’s Looking Glass Self?
a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others
George Herbert Mead and the development of self?
the self is not there at birth, rather, it is developed with social experience
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