Bio Exam 2 Final
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Photosynthesis: What does LIR make?
- uses energy from ATP and NADPH2 to place H's on CO2regenerates RuBP so process can continue
Photosynthesis: What does LDR make?
- Makes ATP from H's in water
- NADPH2 carries electrons from water
Photosynthesis: What four things does LIR need?
- Fuel from LDR (NADPH2 and ATP)
Cellular Respiration: What is the transition (III) or prep step?
converts two molecules of the 3 carbon pyruvate from glycolsis into two molecules of the 2-carbon molecule acetyle coenzyme A
Cellular Respiration: describe glycolysis
set of reaction in which glucose is broken down to two pyruvates for a net yield of 2 ATP (adds 2 ATP to glucose to yield 2 pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 NADH---net yield of 2 ATP)
Cellular Respiration; What products are produced by glycolysis?
2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvates
Cellular Respiration: What does ETS require?
6O2, 10 NADH, and 2 FADH2
Cellular respiration; Where do triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates enter cellular respiration?
Carbohydrates produce glucose. If not enough carbs are consumed the body will turn proteins and triglycerides into the needed sugar
Cellular respiration: what products are produced by the Kreb's cycle?
2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2. (Remaining four carbons lost as 4CO2.)
Cellular Respiration: Describe the Kreb's cycle.
Cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl CoA formation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxide for a net yield of 2 ATP and many reduced coenzymes
Cellular respiration: what is chemiosmosis?
The generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration
Cellular respiration: Products of the Prep step.
2 NADH, 2 acetyl CoA and 2 CO2
- Meiosis II- sisters fail to separate
- Meiosis I- homologous chromosomes fail to separate
Genetics name some Autosomal dominant disorders
Polydactyly, dwarfism, hypercholesterolemia
Genetics: examples of sex-linked inheritance.
blood clotting, male pattern baldness, color vision
Genetics: examples of autosomal recessive disorders
sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, albinism, PKU, Tay-Sachs
Genetics: multiple allele inheritance
traits that have more than two alleles controlling them. Blood type
One gene effects many traits like Marfan syndrome (Abe Lincoln)
Genetics; causes of Down's syndrome
three copies of chromosome 21, aneuploidy, non disjunction during meiosis
Genetics: Single trait inheritance
Means if there is a dominant gene, it will show if it is presented and one gene pair controls the trait
Genetics: 4 types of chromosomal mutations
Genetics: Monohybrid cross
Cross in which individuals with different alleles of one gene are crossed
Genetics; Polygenic inheritance
many sets of genes effect a single trait, such as human skin color
Genetics: Mendel's law of segregation
allele pairs separate during gamete formation and randomly unite at fertilization
DNA:what is a codon?
one half of the broken DNA strand. The CODE for the DNA
RNA's opposite answer to codon. while DNA uses T-A, G-C, RNA uses U-A, G-C
DNA: What does translation need and where does it happen?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA cytoplasm
DNA: DNA structure
- Ladder of sugar and phosphate
- Rungs of complementary nucleotides
DNA: RNA polymerase
Main enzyme responsible for transcription
DNA; DNA polymerase
enzyme that brings in the correct complementary nucleotides during replication
DNA; Disorder caused by DNA substitiution
Sickle cell anemia
DNA; What is DNA made from?
Chromosomes and protiens
pictures of chromosomes--amniocentsis
Sisters line up on equator
division of the nucleus
DNA: cell cycle
- S-dna duplicates
- G2-2nd growth phase
- G1-S-G2 are interphase--this is most of the time
Meiosis: What creates variation?
- Crossing over
- independent assortment
- which egg?
- which sperm
period between meiosis i and meiosis ii
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