Bio 152 Test Three

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Bio 152 Test Three
2014-03-21 19:57:25

animal test
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  1. organs
    organization of different tissues into functional units
  2. tissues
    groups of cells with a similar appearance and a common function
  3. physiology
    biological function
  4. organ system
    groups of organs that work together to provide an additional level of organization and coordination
  5. epithelial tissue
    sheets of closely packed cells which cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavities
  6. epithelium
    lines the intestines and secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients
  7. basal lamina
    a dense mat of extracellular matrix that separates the epithelium from the underlying tissue
  8. nervous tissue
    functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information
  9. neurons
    the basic units of the nervous system
  10. skeletal muscle
    responsible for voluntary movements; the arrangement gives them a striped appearance
  11. striated muscle
    skeletal muscle
  12. smooth muscle
    lacks striations and has spindle-shaped cells, is found in the walls of many internal organs.  responsible for involuntary activities, such as churning of the stomach and constriction of arteries
  13. cardiac muscle
    striated like skeletal muscle, forms the contractile wall of the heart
  14. connective tissue
    consists of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix, often consisting of a web of fibers embedded in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation.  Includes loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, and blood and bone
  15. regulator for an environmental variable
    uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation
  16. conformer for an environmental variable
    allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes
  17. interstitial fluid
    the fluid that surrounds body cells
  18. homeostasis
    "steady state" as in the steady body temperature or the stable concentration of solutes in animals
  19. set point
    a particular value for the variable being maintained by homeostasis, such as 37 C for human body temperature
  20. stimulus
    fluctuations in the variable above or below the set point, detected by a receptor "sensor"
  21. response
    a physiological activity that helps return the variable to the set point
  22. thermoregulation
    the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a normal range
  23. endothermic
    warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism
  24. ectothermic
    gain most of their heat from external sources
  25. countercurrent exchange
    the transfer of heat (or solutes) between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions
  26. hypothalamus
    the brain region where the sensors for thermoregulation are concentrated
  27. endocrine system
    signaling molecules released into the bloodstream by endocrine cells are carried to all locations in the body
  28. hormones
    the signaling molecules broadcast throughout the body by the endocrine system
  29. pancreas
    A gland located behind the stomach; stimulated by the hormone secretin into the blood stream, responds by releasing bicarbonate into ducts leading to the duodenum
  30. pituitary gland
    located at the base of the hypothalamus; where signals from hypo travel; two parts
  31. anterior pituitary
    hormonal signals from the hypothalamus trigger the synthesis and release of hormones from this
  32. posterior pituitary
    an extension of the hypothalamus; stores and releases two hormones: Oxytocin and ADH
  33. oxytocin
    a hormone that regulates milk release during nursing in mammals as part of the neuroendocrine pathway
  34. Vasopressin (ADH)
    Antidiuretic hormone: promotes retention of eater by kidneys; influences social behavior and bonding
  35. positive feedback
    reinforces a stimulus, leading to an even greater response
  36. epinephrine
    also called adrenaline; secreted by adrenal glands; raises blood glucose levels, increases blood flow to muscles, decreases blood flow to digestive system
  37. osmoregulation
    the general term for the processes by which animals control solute concentrations in the interstitial fluid and balance water gain and loss
  38. excretion
    the process that rids the body of nitrogenous metabolites and other metabolic waste products
  39. osmolarity
    total solute concentration expressed as molarity; moles of solute per liter of solution
  40. osmoconformer
    to be isoosmotic with surroundings; all are marine animals
  41. osmoregulator
    to control internal osmolarity independent of the environment
  42. ammonia
    a small, toxic molecule produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism
  43. urea
    a soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide
  44. uric acid
    a product of protein and purine metabolism and the major nitrogenous waste product of insects, land snails, and many reptiles.  Uric acid is relatively non-toxic and largely insoluble
  45. transport epithelia
    one or more layers of epithelial cells specialized for moving particular solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions
  46. filtrate
    water and small solutes, such as salts, sugars, amino acids, and nitrogenous wastes, cross the membrane, forming a solution called this
  47. selective reabsorption
    recovers useful molecules and water form the filtrate and returns them to the body fluids
  48. selective secretion
    non-essential solutes and wastes are left in the filtrate or added to it by this
  49. kidney
    a specialized organ which functions in both osmoregulation and excretion
  50. ureter
    duct through which urine produced by each kidney exits
  51. urethra
    tube through which during urination urine is expelled from the bladder
  52. nephrons
    functional units of the vertebrate kidney
  53. Bowman's capsule
    cup-shaped swelling which surrounds the glomerulus (ball of capillaries)
  54. protonephridia
    earliest type of excretory system (flatworms); flame bulbs grab things from fluid; tons and tons of waste holes, all separate
  55. malpighian tubules
    waste gets thrown into digestive system; food waste and nitrogenous waste come out together
  56. proximal tubule
    reabsorption is critical for the recapture of ions, water, and valuable nutrients from initial filtrate; NaCl enters, water follows by osmosis
  57. descending limb of loop of Henle
    reabsorption of water continues; freely permeable to water; passive transport
  58. ascending limb of loop of Henle
    salt moves out of nephron; active transport
  59. distal tubule
    regulates K+ and NaCl concentrations
  60. collecting duct
    carries the filtrate through the medulla to the renal pelvis
  61. countercurrent multiplier
    expends energy to create a concentration gradient; going in opposite directions causes something to happen
  62. essential nutrients
    materials that an animal cannot assemble from simpler organic precursors
  63. essential fatty acids
    animals cannot synthesize; contain one or more double bonds
  64. essential amino acids
    humans require 8, babies 9
  65. vitamins
    organic molecules that are required in the diet in very small amounts
  66. minerals
    inorganic nutrients that are usually required in small amounts
  67. undernutrition
    a diet that fails to provide adequate sources of chemical energy
  68. malnutrition
    a failure to obtain adequate nutrition
  69. ingestion
    the act of eating or feeding
  70. digestion
    the second stage of food processing; food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
  71. mechanical digestion
    breaks food into smaller pieces; increasing the surface area for chemical processes
  72. chemical digestion
    necessary because animal cannot directly use proteins, carbs, nucleic acids, fats, and phospholipids in food
  73. absorption
    the animal's cells take up small molecules
  74. elimination
    undigested material passes out of the digestive system
  75. gastrovascular cavity
    pouch which functions in digestion as well as the distribution of nutrients throughout the body
  76. alimentary canal
    complete digestive tract; two openings
  77. peristalsis
    alternating waves of contraction and relaxation; how food moves down the alimentary canal
  78. sphincters
    ringlike valves in the muscular layer of some junctions between specialized compartments
  79. oral cavity
  80. salivary glands
    deliver saliva through ducts to the oral cavity
  81. amylase
    hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
  82. mucus
    a viscous mixture of water, salts, cells, and slippery glycoproteins
  83. bolus
    the ball into which the tongue shapes the food before swallowing
  84. pharynx
    throat region
  85. esophagus
    connects to the stomach
  86. trachea
    leads to lungs
  87. stomach
    stores food and begins digestion of proteins
  88. gastric juice
    stomach secretes the components of a digestive fluid called this
  89. chyme
    mixture of ingested food and digestive juice
  90. protease
    protein-digesting enzyme; ex. pepsin
  91. pepsin
    breaks peptide bonds and cleaves proteins
  92. small intestine
    enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules from food occurs; longest compartment
  93. duodenum
    first 25 cm of small intestine; where chyme mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
  94. pancreas
    aids chemical digestion by producing an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate as well as several enzymes
  95. bile
    a mixture of substances made in the liver; contains bile salts which act as emulsifiers that aid in digestion and absorption of lipids
  96. gallbladder
    where bile is store and concentrated
  97. villi
    finger-like projections lining the lining of the small intestine
  98. hepatic portal vein
    blood vessel that leads directly to the liver
  99. large intestine
    includes colon, cecum, rectum
  100. cecum
    important for fermenting ingested material, especially in animals that eat large amounts of plant material
  101. appendix
    finger-like extension of the human cecum, has a minor and dispensable role in immunity
  102. feces
    wastes of the digestive system
  103. rectum
    where feces are stored until they can be eliminated; there are two sphincters, inner involuntary, outer voluntary
  104. crop
    stores food in other animals
  105. gizzard
    stores and mechanically digests food in other animals
  106. bioenergetics
    the flow and transformation of energy in an animal
  107. metabolic rate
    animal's energy rate per unit of time
  108. diabetes mellitus
    disease caused by deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target cells
  109. open circulatory system
    the circulatory fluid is also the interstitial fluid; arthropods and some molluscs like clams
  110. hemolymph
    circulatory fluid in an open system
  111. closed circulatory system
    blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
  112. cardiovascular system
    closed circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates
  113. arteries
    carry blood from the heart to the organs throughout the body
  114. capillaries
    microscopic vessels with very thin, porous walls
  115. capillary beds
    networks of capillaries
  116. veins
    the vessels that carry blood back to the heart
  117. atria
    the chambers that receive blood entering the heart
  118. ventricles
    the chambers responsible for pumping blood out of the heart
  119. single circulation
    the blood passes through the heart once in each complete circuit; bony fishes, rays, and sharks
  120. double circulation
    circulatory system with two circuits; amphibians, reptiles, mammals
  121. gas exchange circuit
    where there is a net movement of O2 into the blood and CO2 out of the blood
  122. pulmonary circuit
    gas exchange where capillary beds involved are the lungs
  123. pulmocutaneous circuit
    gas exchange where capillaries are in both lungs and skin (amphibians)
  124. systemic circuit
    the branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body
  125. cardiac cycle
    one complete sequence of pumping and filling
  126. systole
    contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
  127. diastole
    relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
  128. atrioventricular valve
    lies between each atrium and ventricle
  129. semilunar valves
    located at the two exits of the heart
  130. sinoatrial node
    pacemaker; sets the rate and timing at which all other cardiac muscles contract
  131. atrioventricular node
    where impulses are delayed so that the atria can empty completely before the ventricles contract
  132. electrocardiogram (EKG)
    current against time of SA node
  133. pulse
    the rhythmic bulging of the artery walls with each heartbeat
  134. vasoconstriction
    as the smooth muscles in the arteriole walls contract the arterioles narrow, process called this
  135. vasodilation
    when the smooth muscles of the arterioles relax; an increase in diameter which causes blood pressure to decrease
  136. lymphatic system
    includes a network of tiny vessels intermingled among capillaries of the cardiovascular system; lost fluid and proteins return to the blood via this
  137. lymph
    fluid lost by capillaries; composition same as interstitial fluid
  138. lymph nodes
    filter lymph and house cells that attack viruses and bacteria
  139. plasma
    liquid matrix in which cells are suspended in blood
  140. platelets
    cell fragments that are involved in the clotting process
  141. stem cells
    multipotent and dedicated to replenishing the body's blood cell populations
  142. hemoglobin
    the iron-containing protein that transports O2
  143. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  144. thrombus
    clot formed within a blood vessel that blocks the flow of blood
  145. LDL
    delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production
  146. HDL
    scavenges excess cholesterol for return to the liver
  147. atherosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries by fatty deposits
  148. heart attack
    myocardial infarction; damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries
  149. stroke
    death of nervous tissue to the brain due to a lack of O2
  150. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  151. partial pressure
    the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases
  152. skin as a respiratory organ
    dense network of capillaries facilitates the exchange of gases between the circulatory system and the environment
  153. gills
    outfoldings of the body surface that are suspended in the water
  154. ventilation
    movement of the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface
  155. tracheal system
    network of air tubes that branch throughout the body
  156. lungs
    localized respiratory organs
  157. larynx
    upper part of the respiratory tract
  158. bronchi
    the trachea branches into two of these
  159. alveoli
    air sacs clustered at the tips of the tiniest bronchioles
  160. surfactant
    a material that reduces surface tension
  161. breathing
    the alternating inhalation and exhalation of air
  162. positive pressure breathing
    filling the lungs with forced airflow
  163. negative pressure breathing
    pulling, rather than pushing, air into the lungs
  164. diaphragm
    a sheet of skeletal muscle that forms the bottom layer wall of the cavity
  165. tidal volume
    the volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath
  166. vital capacity
    tidal volume during maximal inhalation and exhalation
  167. residual volume
    the air that remains after a forced exhalation
  168. respiratory pigments
    circulate with the blood or hemolymph and are often contained within specialized cells; they greatly increase the amount of O2 that can be carried in the circulatory fluid
  169. lysozyme
    an enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls, acts as a chemical barrier against pathogens ingested with food
  170. Neutrophils
    white blood cells; are attracted by signals from infected tissues
  171. macrophages
    white blood cells; larger phagocytic cells
  172. natural killer cells
    circulate through the body and detect the abnormal array of surface proteins characteristic of some virus-infected and cancerous cells
  173. interferons
    proteins that provide innate defense by interfering with viral infections
  174. complement system
    proteins circulate in an inactive state and are activated by substances on the surface of many microbes
  175. inflammatory response
    the changes brought about by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection
  176. lymphocytes
    white blood cells; T and B cells
  177. thymus
    an organ in the thoracic cavity above the heart
  178. T cells
    lymphocytes which migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus
  179. B cells
    lymphocytes that remain and mature in the bone marrow
  180. antigen
    any substance that elicits a response from a B cell or T cell
  181. antigen receptor
    protein to which the B cell or T cell binds to an antigen
  182. epitope
    the small, accessible portion of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor
  183. effector cells
    actually go out and do battle
  184. memory cells
    what makes you acquired; doesn't do anything now--but later remembers