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Instrumental nature of language
Language is a tool that helps you get what's in your head into another human being's head
What is a symbol and how does it work?
- Symbol is a word, sound or visual image that represents something else, such as a thought, concept, or object.
- Referent is a thing that a symbol represents.
- Triggered Thought is a mental process of creating an image, sound, concept, or experience triggered by a referent or symbol.
Arbitrary means random. This is a relationship of a referent and the symbol.
Time sensitive; words have different meanings in time
Society has to come to an agreement to what the symbol means
Cultural qualities of symbols
Meaning of a symbol such as a word can change from culture to culture
Personal and subjective meaning of a word
Restrictive or literal meaning of a word
How words impact reality construction
Words create perceptions, influence our thoughts, influence our actions, and affect and reflect culture
"good" or "bad", use language to create your own vision of how you experience the world
A mild or indirect word that is substituted for one that describes something vulgar, profane, unpleasant, or embarrassing.
A word that carries baggage through language (ex. climate change/Global warning)
Based in the principle of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity, the hypothesis that language shapes our thoughts and culture, and our culture and thoughts affect the language we use to describe our world.
Set of words that have a particular meaning to a subgroup or culture
Conversation that uses many words and various ways of describing an idea or concept to communicate its meaning
Another name for restricted code; specialized terms or abbreviations whose meanings are known only to members of a specific group
Characteristics/Features of nonverbal communication
tone of voice, eye contact, facial expressions, posture, movement, general appearance, use of personal space, manipulation of the communication environment
it is also ambiguous, continuous, and multichanneled
study of human movement and gesture
nonverbal cues that have specific, generally understood meanings in a given culture and may substitute for a word or phrase
Nonverbal behaviors that accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it
control the flow of communication (queue to let the other person know its their turn to talk)
body movement or facial expression that shows emotional state
Affect (emotion) displays
Nonverbal behaviors that satisfy a personal need and help a person adapt or respond to the immediate situation
Microexpressions - facial expression that shows affect displays
Leakage cues is a feature that shows when one is lying
Monitor the behavior of others; cognitive function (gives information about another person's thought processes) ; regulatory cues when you want to talk and when you don't; expressive function.
Distance/spacing; study of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves
Study of how animals (including humans) use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
How you use time and what it communicates about you
Tone of voice that accompany or modify the phonemes of an utterance and that may communicate meaning.
Objects that tells people about ourselves (vehicles, backpack)
Artifactual communication or object language
liking of another person; ex. smiling; eye contact, forward lean
excitement, nonverbal cues as vocal, facial, and gestures
Talk over someone; higher status: power, status, and control communication by such nonverbal cues as a relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protected personal space.
Emotional contagion theory
theory that emotional expression is contagious, people can "catch" emotions just by observing others' emotional expressions
nature of conflict/ components of its definition
conflict are disagreements or misunderstanding
They are inevitable/desirable; struggle by degree (war); interdependent (people are dependent on each other); content (goals/desires, resources, power); and layered (content/relationship-see the health of the relationship)
5 steps of Conflict Process
- 1. Prior Conditions (something leads up to the conflict)
- 2. Frustration Awareness (nonverbal)
- 3. Active Conflict (expressed emotions)
- 4. Resolution (constructive/destructive)
- 5. Follow-up/Aftermath (an apology)
Want two opposite things at the same time
- autonomy vs. togetherness (independent but want to be w/ someone)
- privacy vs. transparency (keep to yourself but want an open relationship)
- novelty vs. predictability (excitement of newness but comfort from familiarity)
small disagreement; conflict that stems from different ideas, definitions, perceptions, or goals
conflict in which the original issue is ignored as partners attack each other's self-esteem
conflict triggered by lack of understanding and miscommunication
Dredging up old problems and issues from the past to use against your partner
Conflict management style - backing off and trying to side-step conflict; "lose-lose" approach
Advantage - don't want to hurt the feelings of others
Disadvantage - being unassertive and unable to stand up to one's own rights
Conflict management style - involves giving in to the demands of others; "lose-win" approach
Advantage - Reasonable and you want to help
Disadvantage - you may diminish your power to the extent that others take advantage of you.
Conflict management style - stresses winning a conflict at the expense of the other person invovled
Competition conflict management style
Advantage - if you believe that your position is clearly the best approach and that anything short of achieving your goal would be harmful to you and to others
Disadvantage - often resort to blaming rather than assuming responsibility for a conflict. They do threats and warnings
Conflict management style - attempts to find the middle ground in the conflict. "lose/win-lose/win" approach
Advantage - reinforces the notion that all parties involved share in equal power
Disadvantage - compromising results in each person giving in but no person feeling pleased with the compromise.
Conflict management style - uses other-oriented strategies to achieve a positive solution for all involved
Collaboration style of conflict management
Advantage - enhances commitment to resolution of the conflict
Disadvantages - time, skill, patience, and energy required to manage conflict collaboratively.