Com 102 Exam #2 Study guide

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  1. Instrumental nature of language
    Language is a tool that helps you get what's in your head into another human being's head
  2. What is a symbol and how does it work?
    • Symbol is a word, sound or visual image that represents something else, such as a thought, concept, or object.
    • Referent is a thing that a symbol represents.
    • Triggered Thought is a mental process of creating an image, sound, concept, or experience triggered by a referent or symbol.
  3. Arbitrary relationship
    Arbitrary means random.  This is a relationship of a referent and the symbol.
  4. Time sensitive; words have different meanings in time
  5. Society has to come to an agreement to what the symbol means
  6. Cultural qualities of symbols
    Meaning of a symbol such as a word can change from culture to culture
  7. Personal and subjective meaning of a word
  8. Restrictive or literal meaning of a word
  9. How words impact reality construction
    Words create perceptions, influence our thoughts, influence our actions, and affect and reflect culture
  10. Labeling/naming
    "good" or "bad", use language to create your own vision of how you experience the world
  11. A mild or indirect word that is substituted for one that describes something vulgar, profane, unpleasant, or embarrassing.
  12. A word that carries baggage through language (ex. climate change/Global warning)
    Loaded language
  13. Based in the principle of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity, the hypothesis that language shapes our thoughts and culture, and our culture and thoughts affect the language we use to describe our world.
    Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
  14. Set of words that have a particular meaning to a subgroup or culture
    Restricted codes
  15. Conversation that uses many words and various ways of describing an idea or concept to communicate its meaning
    Elaborated codes
  16. Jargon
    Another name for restricted code; specialized terms or abbreviations whose meanings are known only to members of a specific group
  17. Characteristics/Features of nonverbal communication
    tone of voice, eye contact, facial expressions, posture, movement, general appearance, use of personal space, manipulation of the communication environment

    it is also ambiguous, continuous, and multichanneled
  18. study of human movement and gesture
  19. nonverbal cues that have specific, generally understood meanings in a given culture and may substitute for a word or phrase
  20. Nonverbal behaviors that accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it
  21. control the flow of communication (queue to let the other person know its their turn to talk) 
  22. body movement or facial expression that shows emotional state
    Affect (emotion) displays
  23. Nonverbal behaviors that satisfy a personal need and help a person adapt or respond to the immediate situation
  24. Facial display
    Microexpressions - facial expression that shows affect displays

    Leakage cues is a feature that shows when one is lying
  25. Eye contact
    Monitor the behavior of others; cognitive function (gives information about another person's thought processes) ; regulatory cues when you want to talk and when you don't; expressive function.
  26. Touching
  27. Distance/spacing; study of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves
  28. Study of how animals (including humans) use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
  29. How you use time and what it communicates about you
  30. Tone of voice that accompany or modify the phonemes of an utterance and that may communicate meaning.
  31. Objects that tells people about ourselves (vehicles, backpack)
    Artifactual communication or object language
  32. liking of another person; ex. smiling; eye contact, forward lean
  33. excitement, nonverbal cues as vocal, facial, and gestures
  34. Talk over someone; higher status: power, status, and control communication by such nonverbal cues as a relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protected personal space.
  35. Emotional contagion theory
    theory that emotional expression is contagious, people can "catch" emotions just by observing others' emotional expressions
  36. nature of conflict/ components of its definition
    conflict are disagreements or misunderstanding

    They are inevitable/desirable; struggle by degree (war); interdependent (people are dependent on each other); content (goals/desires, resources, power); and layered (content/relationship-see the health of the relationship)
  37. 5 steps of Conflict Process
    • 1. Prior Conditions (something leads up to the conflict)
    • 2. Frustration Awareness (nonverbal)
    • 3. Active Conflict (expressed emotions)
    • 4. Resolution (constructive/destructive)
    • 5. Follow-up/Aftermath (an apology)
  38. Want two opposite things at the same time
    Dialectical tension

    • autonomy vs. togetherness (independent but want to be w/ someone)
    • privacy vs. transparency (keep to yourself but want an open relationship)
    • novelty vs. predictability (excitement of newness but comfort from familiarity)
  39. Simple conflict
    small disagreement; conflict that stems from different ideas, definitions, perceptions, or goals
  40. Ego conflict
    conflict in which the original issue is ignored as partners attack each other's self-esteem
  41. conflict triggered by lack of understanding and miscommunication
  42. Dredging up old problems and issues from the past to use against your partner
  43. Conflict management style - backing off and trying to side-step conflict; "lose-lose" approach
    Avoidance style 

    Advantage - don't want to hurt the feelings of others

    Disadvantage - being unassertive and unable to stand up to one's own rights
  44. Conflict management style - involves giving in to the demands of others; "lose-win" approach
    Accommodation style

    Advantage - Reasonable and you want to help

    Disadvantage - you may diminish your power to the extent that others take advantage of you.
  45. Conflict management style - stresses winning a conflict at the expense of the other person invovled
    Competition conflict management style

    Advantage - if you believe that your position is clearly the best approach and that anything short of achieving your goal would be harmful to you and to others

    Disadvantage - often resort to blaming rather than assuming responsibility for a conflict.  They do threats and warnings
  46. Conflict management style - attempts to find the middle ground in the conflict. "lose/win-lose/win" approach
    Compromise style

    Advantage - reinforces the notion that all parties involved share in equal power

    Disadvantage - compromising results in each person giving in but no person feeling pleased with the compromise.
  47. Conflict management style - uses other-oriented strategies to achieve a positive solution for all involved
    Collaboration style of conflict management

    Advantage - enhances commitment to resolution of the conflict

    Disadvantages - time, skill, patience, and energy required to manage conflict collaboratively.
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Com 102 Exam #2 Study guide
2014-03-21 22:07:08
Communications Exam2

Exam #2 Study Guide
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