Psyc chapter 15 text

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Psyc chapter 15 text
2014-03-22 15:37:43
chapter 15
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  1. stress
    a state brought on by any situation that threatens or appears to threaten a persons sense of well being, thus challenging the persons ability to cope
  2. stressor
    a situation or circumstance that triggers the stress response
  3. acute stressor
    short term and has a definite endpoint
  4. chronic stressor
    a stressful situation or circumstance that is more long term and often lacks a definite endpoint
  5. 4 ways of experiencing stress
    frustration, pressure, conflict and danger
  6. frustration
    an emotion people experience when thwarted in pursuit of a goal
  7. pressure
    • an expectation of demand that someone act a certain way
    • internal or external
    • situational dependant
  8. conflict (3 types)
    • discomfort brought about by two or more goals or impulses perceived to be incompatible
    • 1. approach-approach: conflict that occurs when a person must choose between two equally desirable options
    • 2. avoidance- avoidance: conflict that occurs when a person must choose between two equally undesirable options
    • 3. approach-avoidance: conflict that occurs when any available choice has both desirable and undesirable qualitites
  9. daily hassles
    • everyday annoyances that contribute to higher stress levels; also known as micro-stressors
    • add up, can cause health risks
    • often is ongoing so can have bigger health issues than big short term stressors
  10. life chagnes
    shifts in life circumstances that require adjustment of some kind
  11. life-changing units
    • a assigned point value to life changing events
    • point value corresponds to the amount of upset and adjustment that the event typically produced
  12. social readjustment rating scale
    • 43- item list
    • 1-100 life changing units
    • use to asses how much stress people were under
    • includes positive and negative events but criticized for looking at more negative events
    • does not apply equally to all populations
    • higher scores found in people with health problems
  13. leading life stressors for college students
    • slightly different than the social readjustment rating scale
    • 1. having to take multiple tests
    • 2. enduring final exam week
    • 3. applying to graduate school
    • 4. being a victim of crime
    • 5. having assignments in a number of different classes due on the same day
    • 6. breaking up with a romantic partner
  14. traumatic events
    • unexpected events severe enough to create extreme disruptions
    • can leave profound and long lasting effects
    • victims may experience a sense of helplessness, depression, anxiety, numbness and disorientation
  15. posttraumatic stress disorder
    an anxiety disorder experienced in response to a major traumatic event, characterized by lingering, persistent, frightening thoughts or memories of the traumatic events, along with anxiety, depression, and other symptoms
  16. sterotype threat
    the suspicions, confusion, and resulting vigilance experienced by minority group members as they interact with majority group members. Perceived racism
  17. the fight or flight response
    sympathetic nervous system
  18. autonomic nervous system activation
    • sympathetic nervous system activation
    • stimulates heart and other body organs
    • activates adrenal medulla (central part of the adrenal glands)
    • releases epi. norepi.
    • rise in HR, BP, resp., muscle tention, decrease digestion, blood vessel constriction
  19. Activation of HPA axis
    • hypothalamus activation
    • stimulates pituitary gland
    • releases ACTH
    • stimulates adrenal cortex (outer part of adrenal gland)
    • releases cortisol
    • increases blood sugar, metabolism
    • slower activation than sympathetic
  20. general adaptation syndrome
    • a 3-stage response to stress identified by hans selye:
    • 1. alarm - aroused physically (aka fight or flight)
    • 2. resistance - continuation of a threat, body adapts and copes with stressor, if new stressors introduce are less able to deal
    • 3. exhaustion - resistance gradually gives way if stressor carries on for too long

    stress response is the same for all stressors
  21. disease adaption
    with selye's general adaption syndrome during resistance stage the body is vulnerable to health problems such as high blood pressure, asthma, and illnesses associated with impaired immune function
  22. cognitive-mediational theory of stress
    • our level of stress largely depends on how we appraise a threat and evaluate our abilities to cope with it
    • perceptions of control can greatly affect how dangerous or stressful an event feels
    • Primary Appraisal - we examine the stressor and assess how severe it is
    • Secondary Appraisal - we evaluate our own resources and ability to cope with the threat, challenge or loss
  23. individual responses to stress (4 factors)
    • autonomic reactivity
    • explanatory style
    • personality
    • and social support
  24. autonomic reactivity and stree
    • people differ in how strongly the ANS responds
    • would make people react to mild stressors more or less and therefor ave more or less stress
  25. explanatory style and stree
    • the characteristic manner in which we explain events can make a difference in how we appraise and respond to stressors
    • optimistic vs pessimistic explanatory styles
    • optimistic explanatory style people experience less stress
  26. hardy personality
    • welcome challenges and are willing to commit themselves and take control in their daily lives
    • have less stress, can handle stressors better
  27. type a
    • friedman and rosenman
    • people who interact with the world in a way that produces continual stress
    • a personality type characterized by competitiveness, impatience, anger, and hostility
  28. type B
    • friedman and rosenman
    • a personality type that is less aggressive, more relaxed, and less hostile that type 1
    • thought to experience lower levels of stress
  29. type C
    • a personality type characterized by difficulty in expressing or acknowledging negative feelings
    • particularly prone to stress
    • have a heard time with breakups
  30. social support and stress
    social relationships and support help prevent or reduce stress reactions
  31. coping
    efforts to manage, reduce, or tolerate stress
  32. coping flexible
    people who are more able than others to depart from their preferred coping styles to meet the demands at hand
  33. lashing out
    • not typically a constructive way to deal with stressors
    • people used to think it was cathartic (cleansing) - not true - usually causes more outbursts
  34. self defence
    • defence mechanisms
    • adaptive self deception
    • sometimes constructive, sometime not
  35. repressive coping style
    • consistently deny negative feelings and discomfort and try to push such emotions out of awareness 
    • in a study reported feeling less stressed but autonomic nervous system was more active
    • tend do have higher health issues that people who don't use
  36. self-indulgence
    • little longer term help
    • often associated with poor adjustment and depression and anxiety
  37. constructive stress strategies
    • problem focused coping
    • emotion focused coping
  38. problem focused coping
    coping strategies focused on dealing directly with the stressor, such as by changing the stressor in some way
  39. emotion focused coping
    coping strategies focused on changing one's feelings about the stressor
  40. cognitive reappraisal
    finding a way to reinterpret the negative aspects of a situation so that they are less upsetting.
  41. distress
    stress caused by unpleasant situations or circumstances
  42. eustress
    • caused by pleasant stressors
    • the optimal level of stress needed to promote physical and psychological health
  43. inoculation
    exposing oneself to a relatively low level of stress in a controlled situation to improve later performance in a more stressful situation