Rad Bio Hot Spots

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Rad Bio Hot Spots
2014-03-22 22:04:24
radiation biology
Registry Review
Rad Bio Hot Spots
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  1. If a cell is irradiated during G1, S or G2 phase it will result in __________.
    • Interphase death
    • def: the death of cells before these cells reach mitosis. 
    • aka. non-mitosis or non-division death
  2. A decrease in the reproductive integrity or cells' ability to undergo a limited number of divisions after irradiation
    *the most common cellular response*
    Reproductive Failure

    (mitotic death)
  3. Irradiated cells that involve a disruption in the mitotic index.
    • Division Delay
    • (mitotic delay)
  4. Results of Division Delay:
    Cells that are in interphase when irradiation occurs will be delayed in the ______ phase.
    • G-2
    • The consequence is a decrease in the Mitotic Index for the population, which means that fewer cells than normal will divide.
  5. A _________ of genetic material results when the fragments between the breaks is lost & the remaining 2 fragments join.

    Effects on the cell depend on the amount & significance of material lost 
  6. An _________ of genetic material reults when the middle fragment with two broken ends turns around or inverts before re-joining the other two fragments.

    no genetic material is lost but gene sequence is disrupted, so cell longevity is hurt
  7. _________ are known as radio-protectors but are known to cause side effects.
  8. _________ is the best radiosensitizer.
  9. What is the proper order of the cellular division cycle:
    I. Anaphase
    II. Telophase
    III. Prophase
    IV. Metaphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase

  10. What is the organ system damaged and average time of death in Hematopoietic Syndrome?
    • Bone Marrow
    • 3 weeks - 2 months

    Hematopoietic syndrome = 100-1000cGy
  11. What is the the organ system damaged and average time of death in Gastrointestinal syndrome?
    • Small intestine
    • 3 - 10 days

    Gastrointestinal syndrome = 1000-5000cGy
  12. What is the organ system damaged and average time of death in Cerebrovascular Syndrome?
    • Brain
    • Less than 3 days

    Cerebrovascular Syndrome > 5000cGy
  13. What is the dose range for Hematopoietic Syndrome?
    100 - 1,000 cGy
  14. What is the dose range for Gastrointestinal Syndrome?
    1,000 - 5,000 cGy
  15. Cerebrovascular Syndrome occurs after doses of __________.
    10,000 cGy

    but can be induced by doses as low as 5,000 cGy and up
  16. What is the formula to fine equivalent dose (Sv) from absorbed dose and quality factor?
    Sv = Gy x QF
  17. What is the latent period for leukemia due to radiation?
    4-7 years
  18. The time interval between irradiation and the appearance of malignancy is known as the __________ period.
    Latent period
  19. The human fetus is most sensitive to radiation in the __________ trimester.
    First trimester
  20. The immediate symptoms that appear after an acute radiation exposure are termed the __________ phase/syndrome.
  21. What is the proper order of response to acute whole body exposure?
    I. Recovery (if dose low enough)
    II. Prodromal phase  
    III. Manifest Period

    IV. Latent period
    • Prodromal phase
    • Latent period
    • Manifest period
    • Recovery
  22. On the cell survival curve, the _________ equals the slope of the curve's linear position. and is a measure of radiosensitivity, with radiosensitive cells having a low value.
    • Dose (Do) 
  23. On the cell survival curve, The target or extrapolation number, represented by ______, is determined by extrapolating the linear portion of the curve back until it intersects with the y-axis.
    • Extrapolation number (n)
  24. On the cell survival curve, the dose at which survival becomes exponential, known as the __________, is determined by a measure of the width of the shoulder region of the survival curve.
    It is a measure of the cell's ability to accumulate & repair sublethal damage.
    • Quasi-threshold Dose (Dq)
  25. The __________ is a plot of the radiation dose administered on the x-axis versus the surviving fraction (SF) of cells on the y-axis.
    (made by Puck & Marcus)
    Cell Survival Curve
  26. The ________ the radiation dose, the _________ the mitotic delay, which results in a decrease in the mitotic index.
    the HIGHER the radiation dose, the LONGER the mitotic delay.
  27. When doses are lower than ________ most cell lines will recover and eventually proceed through mitosis.
    1,000 cGy
  28. A ________ contains an unpaired electron in the outer shell, thus making it highly reactive.
    Free radical
  29. Cells attempt to repair radiation damage before ________ by stopping in the ____ phase to confirm that DNA and proteins are intact.
    • Mitosis
    • G-2
  30. The ratio of the number of mitotic cells to the total number of cells in the irradiated population:
    Mitotic Index (MI)
  31. What are the four R's of rad bio?
    • Repopulation
    • Redistribution
    • Reoxygenation
    • Repair
  32. Thyroid cancer can be caused by total body doses as low as ______.
    100 cGy
  33. What is the LD100 for humans?
    1,000 cGy
  34. What is the LD50/60 for humans?
    350-450 cGy
  35. True or False: In Hematopoietic syndrome, the probability of survival is dose dependent.

    (probability of survival decreases with an increasing dose)
  36. Bremsstrahlung is more likely to occur with ________ particles.
    Beta particles
  37. _________ refers to the replacement of damaged cells by a different cell type, resulting in scar formation or fibrosis.
    (more likely w/ high dose)
  38. _________ refers to the replacement of damaged cells by the same cell type.
    (likely to occur in organs w/ VIM & DIM cells)
  39. What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for activity?
    • Activity
    • Traditional: curie (Ci)
    • SI: becquerel (Bq)

    1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq
  40. What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Dose Equivalent?
    • Dose Equivalent
    • roentgen equivalent man (rem)
    • sievert (Sv)

    100 rem = 1 Sv
  41. What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Absorbed Dose?
    • Absorbed Dose
    • radiation absorbed dose (rad)
    • gray (Gy)

    100 rad = 1 Gy = 100 cGy
  42. What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Exposure?
    • Exposure
    • roentgen (R)
    • coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)

    1 R = 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
  43. Examples of _________ effects include cataracts, erythema, skin/tissue burns and sterility.
  44. ________ effects occur randomly with probability for effect increasing with dose.
  45. ________ effects often show up years after exposure.
  46. Examples of ________ effects consist primarily of cancer & genetic effects.
  47. ________ effects have no threshold for occurrence, probability of effect will increase with dose but is not guaranteed.
  48. The severity of a ________ effect is independent of dose.
  49. _________ effects are also known as acute effects.
  50. Non Stochastic effects are also known as __________ effects
  51. A threshold exists for _________ effects.
  52. The severity of _________ effects will increase will the dose but will only occur once the threshold has been reached.
  53. _________ effects generally result from a high dose over a short period of time.
  54. Which effects are of more concern at low levels of exposure?
  55. Quality factor of X-rays & gamma rays:
    X-rays & Gamma rays

    QF = 1
  56. Quality factor of Beta particles & Positrons:
    • Beta particles & Positrons
    • QF = 1

  57. Quality factor of High Energy External Protons:
    High Energy External Protons

    QF = 1
  58. Quality factor of Protons (other than recoil protons):
    Protons (other than recoil protons)

    QF = 2
  59. Quality factor of Thermal Neutrons:
    Thermal Neutrons

     QF = 5

  60. Quality factor of Fast Neutrons:
    Fast Neutrons

    QF = 20
  61. Quality factor of Alpha Particles:
    Alpha Particles

    QF = 20