Rad Bio Hot Spots
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If a cell is irradiated during G1, S or G2 phase it will result in __________.
- Interphase death
- def: the death of cells before these cells reach mitosis.
- aka. non-mitosis or non-division death
A decrease in the reproductive integrity or cells' ability to undergo a limited number of divisions after irradiation
*the most common cellular response*
Irradiated cells that involve a disruption in the mitotic index.
- Division Delay
- (mitotic delay)
Results of Division Delay:
Cells that are in interphase when irradiation occurs will be delayed in the ______ phase.
- The consequence is a decrease in the Mitotic Index for the population, which means that fewer cells than normal will divide.
A _________ of genetic material results when the fragments between the breaks is lost & the remaining 2 fragments join.
Effects on the cell depend on the amount & significance of material lost
An _________ of genetic material reults when the middle fragment with two broken ends turns around or inverts before re-joining the other two fragments.
no genetic material is lost but gene sequence is disrupted, so cell longevity is hurt
_________ are known as radio-protectors but are known to cause side effects.
_________ is the best radiosensitizer.
What is the proper order of the cellular division cycle:
What is the organ system damaged and average time of death in Hematopoietic Syndrome?
Hematopoietic syndrome = 100-1000cGy
- Bone Marrow
- 3 weeks - 2 months
What is the the organ system damaged and average time of death in Gastrointestinal syndrome?
Gastrointestinal syndrome = 1000-5000cGy
- Small intestine
- 3 - 10 days
What is the organ system damaged and average time of death in Cerebrovascular Syndrome?
Cerebrovascular Syndrome > 5000cGy
What is the dose range for Hematopoietic Syndrome?
100 - 1,000 cGy
What is the dose range for Gastrointestinal Syndrome?
1,000 - 5,000 cGy
Cerebrovascular Syndrome occurs after doses of __________.
but can be induced by doses as low as 5,000 cGy and up
What is the formula to fine equivalent dose (Sv) from absorbed dose and quality factor?
Sv = Gy x QF
What is the latent period for leukemia due to radiation?
The time interval between irradiation and the appearance of malignancy is known as the __________ period.
The human fetus is most sensitive to radiation in the __________ trimester.
The immediate symptoms that appear after an acute radiation exposure are termed the __________ phase/syndrome.
What is the proper order of response to acute whole body exposure?
I. Recovery (if dose low enough)
II. Prodromal phase
III. Manifest Period
IV. Latent period
- Prodromal phase
- Latent period
- Manifest period
On the cell survival curve, the _________ equals the slope of the curve's linear position. and is a measure of radiosensitivity, with radiosensitive cells having a low value.
- Dose (Do)
On the cell survival curve, The target or extrapolation number, represented by ______, is determined by extrapolating the linear portion of the curve back until it intersects with the y-axis.
- Extrapolation number (n)
On the cell survival curve, the dose at which survival becomes exponential, known as the __________, is determined by a measure of the width of the shoulder region of the survival curve.
It is a measure of the cell's ability to accumulate & repair sublethal damage.
- Quasi-threshold Dose (Dq)
The __________ is a plot of the radiation dose administered on the x-axis versus the surviving fraction (SF) of cells on the y-axis.
(made by Puck & Marcus)
Cell Survival Curve
The ________ the radiation dose, the _________ the mitotic delay, which results in a decrease in the mitotic index.
the HIGHER the radiation dose, the LONGER the mitotic delay.
When doses are lower than ________ most cell lines will recover and eventually proceed through mitosis.
A ________ contains an unpaired electron in the outer shell, thus making it highly reactive.
Cells attempt to repair radiation damage before ________ by stopping in the ____ phase to confirm that DNA and proteins are intact.
The ratio of the number of mitotic cells to the total number of cells in the irradiated population:
Mitotic Index (MI)
What are the four R's of rad bio?
Thyroid cancer can be caused by total body doses as low as ______.
What is the LD100 for humans?
What is the LD50/60 for humans?
True or False: In Hematopoietic syndrome, the probability of survival is dose dependent.
(probability of survival decreases with an increasing dose)
Bremsstrahlung is more likely to occur with ________ particles.
_________ refers to the replacement of damaged cells by a different cell type, resulting in scar formation or fibrosis.
(more likely w/ high dose)
_________ refers to the replacement of damaged cells by the same cell type.
(likely to occur in organs w/ VIM & DIM cells)
What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for activity?
1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq
- Traditional: curie (Ci)
- SI: becquerel (Bq)
What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Dose Equivalent?
- Dose Equivalent
- roentgen equivalent man (rem)
- sievert (Sv)
100 rem = 1 Sv
What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Absorbed Dose?
- Absorbed Dose
- radiation absorbed dose (rad)
- gray (Gy)
100 rad = 1 Gy = 100 cGy
What are the Traditional and SI units of measure for Exposure?
- roentgen (R)
- coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)
1 R = 2.58 x 10-4
Examples of _________ effects include cataracts, erythema, skin/tissue burns and sterility.
________ effects occur randomly with probability for effect increasing with dose.
________ effects often show up years after exposure.
Examples of ________ effects consist primarily of cancer & genetic effects.
________ effects have no threshold for occurrence, probability of effect will increase with dose but is not guaranteed.
The severity of a ________ effect is independent of dose.
_________ effects are also known as acute effects.
Non Stochastic effects are also known as __________ effects
A threshold exists for _________ effects.
The severity of _________ effects will increase will the dose but will only occur once the threshold has been reached.
_________ effects generally result from a high dose over a short period of time.
Which effects are of more concern at low levels of exposure?
Quality factor of X-rays & gamma rays:
X-rays & Gamma rays
QF = 1
Quality factor of Beta particles & Positrons:
- Beta particles & Positrons
- QF = 1
Quality factor of High Energy External Protons:
High Energy External Protons
QF = 1
Quality factor of Protons (other than recoil protons):
Protons (other than recoil protons)
QF = 2
Quality factor of Thermal Neutrons:
QF = 5
Quality factor of Fast Neutrons:
QF = 20
Quality factor of Alpha Particles:
QF = 20
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