GI

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Author:
bellapixie
ID:
267443
Filename:
GI
Updated:
2014-03-22 08:40:14
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GI
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GI
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  1. What percentage of GI hemorrhages are from the upper GI tract?
    85%
  2. What are the most common causesx of Upper GI Hem?
    • Peptic ulcers
    • esophageal or gastric varices
    • Gastritis
    • Mallory-weis tears
  3. What are the most common causes of Lower GI Hem?
    • Diverticular disease
    • tumors
    • ulcerative colitis
  4. What are esophageal varices?
    Dilation of the submucosal esophageal veins
  5. What causes esophageal varices?
    • Cirrhosis
    • portal vein thrombosis
    • hepatic venous outflow obstruction
    • congenital hepatic fibrosis
  6. What is a TIPS procedure?
    transjungular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
  7. What can you expect with a blakeman tube?
    When this esoph balloon is inflated CP and SOB is normal
  8. What is the definition of hepatic failure?
    Inability of the liver to perform organ functions
  9. What is hepatic encephalopathy?
    Neurologic failure as a result of hepatic failure
  10. What causes acute hepatic failure?
    • Viruses
    • Hepatotoxic drugs
    • Ischemia
    • trauma
    • rey's syndrome
    • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
    • Acute hepatic vein lesion
  11. What are the causes of chronic hepatic failure?
    • Cirrhosis
    • wilson's disease
    • primary or metastatic tumor of the liver
  12. What are the three most common causes of cirrhosis?
    • 1- ETOH
    • 2- Obesity
    • 3- Hepatitis
  13. What is cirrhosis?
    Liver parenchymal cells are progressively destroyed and replaced with fibrotic tissue.
  14. How much of the liver can be destroyed before cirrhosis symptoms appear?
    75%
  15. What is acute pancreatitis?
    Acute inflamation of the pancreas
  16. What are the causes of acute pancreatitis?
    • alcoholism
    • obstruction of the common bile duct
    • Peptic ulcer with perf
    • CA
    • Surgical trauma
    • Radiation
    • Pregnancy
    • Ovarian cyst
    • HYpercalcemia
    • Lupus
    • Infections
    • Ischemia, Post CPB
    • 20% are idopathic
  17. What is Grey Turner's sign?
    Ecchymosis on flank
  18. What percentage of patients with acute pancreatitis die?
    25%
  19. What is an intestional infarction?
    Necrosis of intestinal wall resulting from ischemia
  20. What are causes of intestional infarction?
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • vasculitis
    • mural thrombus
    • emboli (AF)
    • hypercoagulability
    • surgical procedures
    • vasopressors
    • strangulated intestinal obstruction
    • intra-abdominal infection
    • cirrhosis
  21. How is an intestional infarction treated?
    • Intervention or OR
    • D/C Vasopressors with bowel ischemia
    • Prevent perf with NGT, elevate HOB
  22. What is needed to diagnose C. Difficile?
    Greater than 3 day history of watery, foul smelling stool;, with history of antibiotic therapy and colitis (Abd pain)
  23. What is cullen's sign?
    Ecchymosis around unbilicus in hemorrhagic pancreatitis
  24. What is Ker's sign?
    Splenic rupture- left shoulder pain due to diaphragmatic irritation
  25. How should GI assessment be done?
    Inspection, ausculation, palpation, labs
  26. What does retention of phosphorus cause?
    A reciprocal drop in serum calcium

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