Organic Hydrochemistry

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  1. Vapor pressure describes the tendency of
    an organic substance (solid or liquid) to enter the gaseous phase.
  2. Saturation Vapor Pressure (=vapor pressure) is
    the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with it's non-vapor phase
  3. Boiling Point is a temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to......
    • the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid 
    • or atm
  4. Saturation concentration in a gaseous phase is the concentration related to...
    the amount of substance.
  5. Change in pressure is....
    change in equilibriium
  6. Vapor Pressure Depends on....
    • temperature
    • molecular weight
    • intermolecular forces
  7. Vapor Pressure is independent of....
    available volume
  8. A windy day does not mean an increase in volume but an increase in....
  9. Vapor Pressure decreases with....
    • increasing number of carbons
    • decrease in pressure
  10. Boiling point temperature and pressure decrease as ...
    elevation and saturation vapor pressure increase
  11. Boiling point increases with
    increasing number of carbon atoms and bond strenght
  12. List types of bonds from strongest to weakest
    • H-bonds
    • Dipole-dipole
    • Dispersion Forecs
  13. What type of bonds do Carboxylic acids have?
    Extensive H-bonds
  14. What type of bonds do Alcohols have?
  15. What type of bonds do Aldehydes have?
  16. What type of bonds do Alkanes have?
    Dispersion forces
  17. Heavy molecules have....
    low vapor pressure and high boiling point
  18. Light molecules have...
    • High Vapor pressure
    • Low Boiling point
    • High Volatility (VOC)
    • Toxic
  19. Subcoold  Liquid
    liquid existing at a temperature below its normal sautation
  20. Solvent > 90% =
  21. Solvent<90% =
  22. Cosolvent Ratio > 10 Vol% =
    Molecules can be considered as an additional solvent
  23. Cosolute Ratio < 10 Vol% =
    Molecules are considered to be additional molecules.
  24. Polar Covalent Bond
    • Unequal sharing of electrons
    • Two different non-metals
    • Partial Ionic charges
  25. Ionic bond
    • Complete transfer of electrons
    • Full ionic charges
    • metal+nonmetal
  26. Non-Polar Bond
    • No charges
    • Equal sharing of electrons
    • H-H or C-C
    • Two identical non-metals
  27. Low logKow=
    High Solubility
  28. Solubility decreases with...
    Compound Size
  29. Mechanisms of Water Solubility are
    • 1. Destroy the lattice (bonds)
    • 2. Isolated organic solute inserted into water cavity (hydrate shield)
  30. What are characteristics of Non-polar Molecules?
    • Low Solubility
    • LogKow > 2.5
  31. What are examples of Non-polar Molecules?
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Gasses
  32. What do non-polar molecules do in water?
    • Incorporate in the intra-molecular caverns of water (hide)
    • Increase in the structure of water
  33. What are characteristics of Non-polar Molecules?
    • LogKow<2.5
    • High Solubility
    • Hydrogen-bridge bonds
  34. What are examples of Polar Molecules?
    • Urea
    • Ethanol
  35. What are polar-molecules?
    • Functional groups that contain active hydrogen atoms (proton Donor)
    • Atoms with free electron pairs (proton accepts)
  36. What are Hydrogen-bridge Bonds?
    dipole-dipole interaction by a positively-polarized hydrogen atom
  37. When do Hydrogen-bridge Bonds occur?
    In molecules that have a Hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom (F, O, N)
  38. What are some substances that have hydrogen-bridge bonds?
    • Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)
    • Water
    • Ammonia (NH3)
    • Alcohol (R-OH)
    • Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
  39. Solubility in water depends on...
    • Molecular Structure (size, hydrophobicity of the surface)
    • Intermolecular Forces (pressure, temperature)
    • Ionic Strenght
    • Acid/Base Character
  40. The salting out effect is important for....
    non-polar substances
  41. Co-solutes: Solubilization constant increases with...
    • a decrease in the solubility of the co-solute (non-polar molecule) and the soluting (water) substance
    • example:  Increases with Hydrophobic Character
  42. What is a co-solute?
    non-polar molecule
  43. What is an example of a soluting substance?
  44. Hydrophobic Molecule is.....
    • Most often non-polar
    • not soluble in water
    • does not like water
  45. Hydophilic Molecules are
    • Polar
    • soluble in water
  46. What is DOC?
    • Dissolved Organic Carbon
    • Soluted organic bounded carbon
  47. What is DOM?
    • Dissolved Organic Matter
    • Soluted Organic Substance
  48. CDOC <
  49. What does NOM stand for?
    Natural Organic Matter
  50. What does TOC stand for?
    Total Organic Carbon
  51. What does NPOC stand for?
    Non-Purgable Organic Carbon
  52. The partition coefficient (KDOC) increases with...
    • decreasing water solubility
    • increasing hydorphobicity
  53. For inorganic (charged species) what is the effect on the solubility of the compound of interest when similar to solution.....
    • decreases
    • common ion effect
  54. For inorganic (charged species) what is the effect on the solubility of the compound of interest when it is not similar to compounds in the solution.....
    • increases
    • foreign ion effect
  55. For organic (neutral species) what is the effect on the solubility of the compound of interest when it is not similar to compounds in the solution....
    • decrease
    • salting out effect
  56. For organic (neutral species) what is the effect on the solubility of the compound of interest when similar to solution.....
    • increases
    • co-solute effect
Card Set:
Organic Hydrochemistry
2014-03-23 19:10:20
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