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  1. According to Dr. Putthoff, what are 5 point that the human nerous system does?
    • 1- processing center
    • 2-links "you" to the outside world, sensory & motor
    • 3- a large portion of the genome codes for genes specific to the nervous system
    • 4- 10^11 neurons, heterogeneous population of cells
    • 5- complex, several unique anatomic and physiologic characteristics
  2. What is the role of glial cells?
    • non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons of brain and peripheral nervous system.
    • 1- surround neurons and hold them in place
    • 2- supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons
    • 3- insulate neurons from each other
    • 4- destroy pathogens & remove dead neurons
  3. Astrocytes, oligoendrocyts, and ependymal cells are derived from what kind of tissue?
  4. What is the role of astrocytes?
    • Star-shaped glial cells that provide biochemical support for endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, provide nutrients to nervous tissue, maintain extracellular ion balance, repair/scarring process of brain(no fibroblasts), express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).
    • 1- structural: star-shaped, regulate brain impulses
    • 2- metabolic support
    • 3- transmitter uptake
  5. What is the role of oligodendrocytes?
    provide support and insulation to the axons of tthe CNS.  (Schwann cells do this in the PNS).  can wrap around 50 axons.
  6. What is the role of ependymal cells?
    line the ventricals of the brain, produce CSF.  Have cilia on the apical surface, which circulate the CSF.  Choroid plexus- a population of modified ependymal cells and capillaries.
  7. Microglia, What are they and where do they come from?
    Resident macrophages of the brain/spinal cord, that help with immune defense of the CNS.  Differentiated from bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells.  use phagocytic and cytotoxic  to destroy foreign material.  Act as antigen presenting cells.  (scavenging, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antigen presentation, promotion of repair, extracellular signaling)
  8. What is the tissue type that microglial arise from?
    mesodermal origin
  9. What is the name of the connection between the 3rd and 4th ventricle?
    cerebral aqueduct
  10. what is the connection called between the lateral ventricles and the 3rd ventricles?
    interventricular foramen of Monro
  11. Your patient was found not breathing for at least 10 minutes.  The paramedics were able to revive them.   What neuronal changes would you expect to see in 12-24 hours?
    Acute neuronal injury ("Red Neurons").  Acute CNS hypoxia/ischemia or other insult can result in cell death.  morphologic fetuees include shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance of the nucleolus, loss of Nissl substance, and intense eosinophilia of cytoplasm(H&E stain "red neurons")
  12. What is reactive gliosis?
    reactive change of glial cells in response to damage of CNS.  proliferation or hypertrophy of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.)
  13. What are a few indicator of subacute or chronic injury to a neuron?

    what is trrans-synaptic degeneration?
    1. neuronal death occurring as a result of progressive disease process, like ALS.  Histological feature is cell loss, often functionally related neurons, and reactive gliosis.  Often cell loss is due to apoptosis.

    2. loss of post synaptic neuron because of destruction to the afferent input to a group of neurons.
  14. Your patient suffered a traumatic injury to a nerve in which the nerve was severed one of his anterior horn nerves, what will you see histologically in a few months?
    As the neuron attempts to regenerate the lost axon, there will be increase protein synthesis.  the cell body will enlarge and become more rounded, the nucleus will be displaced peripherally, enlargement of the nucleolus, and dispersion of Nissl substance to the periphery of the cell (central chromatolysis).
  15. When it comes to viral infections, often there are intranuclear inclusion bodies with herpetic infections called?
    Cowdry bodies: eosinophilic nuclear inclusions composed of nucleic acid and protein.
  16. A patient receives a bit from a coyote, they never seek treatment and begin to refuse any sort of fluids along with other abnormal behaviors.  What will you find in this patients neurons?
    rabies: cytoplasmic inclusions called Negri bodies (eosinophilic, sharply outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodies.)  Made of ribonuclear proteins produced by the virus.  aka Adelchi Negri.
  17. With Cytomegalo virus, where do the inclusion bodies like to reside?
    nucleus and cytoplasm
  18. What are the cytoplasmic inclusions of Alzheimer dz called?
    neurofibrillary tangles
  19. In Parkinson disease, the cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are called?
    Lewy bodies
  20. What is the Neuropil?
    any area of the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dentrites, and glial cells.
  21. What is the perikaryon?
    the bulbus end of a neuron, or cell body, containing the nucleus.
  22. Astrocyte reaction to injury consists of?
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2014-03-22 21:05:49

Dr. Putthoff pathophysiology
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