Exercise Physiology - Cardiovascular: Vasculature

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Exercise Physiology - Cardiovascular: Vasculature
2010-07-13 23:32:21
exercise physiology cardiovascular vasculature

Exercise physiology and anatomy of the vascular structures of the cardiovascular system
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  1. What are the 5 types of vessels that make up the vascular system and how are they connected
    • AACVV
    • Ateries direct blood from heart;
    • Ateries branch to form multiple Arterioles;
    • Eacch arterioles gives rise to 2 - 5 Capillaries;
    • Several capillaries join together to form a Venule;
    • A number of venules form a single, larger Vein
  2. What is an artery?
    This walled, large-diameter vessels that carry blood away from the heart
  3. What is the aorta?
    The largest artery which directly receives blood from the left ventricle;
  4. What is blood pressure the highest and why?
    Because of their proximity to the heart, blood pressure is highest in the arteries
  5. What are arterioles?
    Branches of the artery which are smaller and which demonstrate a lower blood pressure than arteries
  6. What are capillaries?
    Very small in diameter and have thin walls allowing the exchange of nutrients and gases with tissue
  7. What are venules?
    Begin the return of blood to the heart
  8. What are veins?
    Low-pressure, large diameter vessels that return blood to the heart
  9. What is the main function of the vascular system?
    Satisfy the demand of active tissue for blood, both to provide nutrients and oxygen, and to remove metabolic by-products and carbon dioxide
  10. What are one-way valves and where are they located?
    • Located at regular intervals throughout the vasculature;
    • Ensure unidirectional blood-flow through this network and allow for circulation of blood within the entire body
  11. What does proper function of the vascular system entail?
    • Providing direction for the delivery of blood;
    • Regulating flow rates that are appropriate for the needs of the tissue;
    • The greater the metabolic activity, the greater the flow rate of blood to specific activities
  12. What is vasodilation of the arterioles? How does it happen?
    • Process the tissue goes through to ensure increase demand for blood in the exercising muscles is met;
    • Happens through relaxation of the smooth muscle layered around the walls of the arterioles
  13. What is vasoconstriction? How does it happen?
    • The reduction of blood flow to other tissue, especially the viscera, so the blood needs of the working muscles can be satisfied;
    • Happens through contraction of the smooth muscle layered around the walls of the arterioles
  14. What is blood pressure?
    The force exerted by the blood on the walls of the vessel as it flows through the vessel
  15. Why does blood pressure oscillate?
    Because the heart pumps in a pulsatile, rather than in a contant fashion
  16. Where is the heart's degree of pulsatility most pronounced and least pronounced and why?
    • Most pronounced: Arteries, where blood exits the heart
    • Least pronounced: Venules and veins, furthest away from the heart
  17. What is afterload and how does it effect SV?
    • The resistance imposed by the vessel to it's flow as blood is pumped from the heart;
    • Negatively effects SV
  18. What is preload and how does it affect SV?
    • Amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before contraction;
    • Positively effects SV
  19. What are key components to the compliance of a vessel as it relates to afterload?
    • 1) The greater the compliance, the more easily the walls of the vessel can be stretched to accomodate the surge of blood during system, allowing for greater SV;
    • 2) Healthy blood vessels show high compliance, decreasing afterload
    • 3) Atherosclerosis decreases arterial compliance and increases blood pressure
  20. What is Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and what is it used for?
    • Pressure exerted on arterial walls during systolic (contraction) of left ventricle;
    • Used to estimate contractile force generated by the heart
  21. What should SBP be for healthy people? What SBP indicates hypertension?
    • Healthy: 120 mm Hg
    • Hypertension: Above 140 mm Hg
  22. What is Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) and what is it used for?
    • Pressure exerted on arterial walls during diastolic (resting) phase of cardiac cycle;
    • Value reflects the health of vasculature
  23. What should DBP be for healthy people? What DBP indicates hypertension?
    • Healthy: 80 mm HG
    • Hypertension: Above 90 mm GH
  24. What is Pressure Pulse (PP) and what should PP be in healthy person?
    • Difference between SBP and DBP;
    • Healthy person: 120 (SBP) - 80 (DBP) = 40 mm Hg (PP)
  25. What is Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)? What is the formula for MAP?
    • Average pressure exerted throughout the entire cardiac cycle, which reflects the average force of driving blood into the tissue;
    • MAP = DPB (80) + 1/3 (SBP (120) - DBP (80)) = about 93 mm HG in healthy person
  26. What is Rate-Pressure Product (RPP) or double product? What is the formula for RPP?
    • Correlate of myocardial oxygen uptake and hence the workload of the left ventricle;
    • RPP = SBP * HR
    • At rest RPP = 120 (SBP) * 72 (HR) = 8640
  27. Describe the 2 major modifications the vascular system undergoes during exercise to increase the oxygen delivery to active tissues
    • 1) Redistribute blood flow to meet increased demand of working muscles
    • 2) Overall vasodilation to accomodates the rise in cardiac output, enabling exercise-induced increase in pumping capacity of the heart
  28. What is shunting and how does it effect the distribution of blood?
    • Movement of blood away from visceral organs to skeletal muscles through vasoconstriction of arterioles w/in viscera and vasodilation of arterioles w/in muscles;
    • During rest, only 20% of cardiac output is directed towards muscles;
    • During exercise 85% of cardiac output is directed towards muscles
  29. How is SBP affected by cardiac output during exercise?
    • Elevates SBP;
    • Increases up to 200 mm Hg during maximal rhythmic exercise (running);
    • Maintains at 140 - 160 mm Hg during sub-maximal exercise;
    • Exercise should stop if SBP significantly drops
  30. How is DBP effected by cardiac output during exercise?
    • Remains steady or decreases slightly;
    • Exercise should stop if DBP significantly hikes
  31. What benefits does prolonged exercies have on the vascular system?
    • 1) Under resting conditions and sub-maximal exercise, trained individuals display reduced DBP, SBP and MAP
    • 2) Exercise is more effective only among those who are mildy hypertensive
    • 3) Max SBP is higher on well-conditioned people, and DBP and MAP are lower
  32. How does endurance training improve vascular system?
    • 1) Improves ability of vascular system to redistribute blood flow at start of exercise so that "shunting" of blood to working muscles occurs quicker
    • 2) Improved capillarity with the muscles leading to increased mitochondrial density and enhanced capacity to extract oxygen from blood delivered to it
  33. What effects does rhythmic upper body endurance exercies have of SBP and DBP and why should the trainer keep this in mind?
    • Elicits higher SBP and DBP than during more conventional exercise due to smaller muscle mass involved and greater resistance to blood flow that occurs with these exercises;
    • Should be considered when making exercise recommendations, especially in those with cardiovascular problems
  34. What effect does resistance training have on blood flow?
    Forceful contractions of myofibers impede blood flow through the muscles, elevating blood pressure
  35. When is increased blood pressure during resistance training most pronounced? Why should the trainer keep this in mind?
    • During isometric (no movement) contractions (ex. planks, wall squats);
    • Can raise SBP up to 450 mm Hg;
    • Should be considered when making exercise recommendations, especially in those with cardiovascular problems

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