Chapter 14 Class psyc

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Chapter 14 Class psyc
2014-03-22 17:36:37
class chapter 14
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  1. Social Psycology
    seeks to understand explain, and predict how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
  2. attitudes
    • long lasting patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects
    • based in one's past experiences
    • shape ones future behaviour
    • relatively stable and enduring evaluations of things and people
  3. social cognition
    how people perceive, interpret, and categorize their own and others' social behaviour
  4. ABC model of attitudes
    • the affective component - how we feel toward the object
    • the behavioural component - how we behave toward the object
    • the cognitive component - what we believe about the object
  5. How are attitudes formed
    • beliefs develop early through socialization by parents, peers, media, and teachers
    • attitudes can change to justify new behaviours
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
    • observational learning
  6. implicit attitude
    • Implicit attitude: an attitude of which the person is unaware
    • - To change explicit attitudes: guided exposure to groups toward which prejudiced beliefs are held work best
    • - To change implicit attitudes: fear reduction and emotion-focused interventions are best to reduce implicit prejudice
  7. Cognitie Dissonance
    • Festinger and Carlsmith
    • emotional discomfort as a result of holding contradictory beliefs or holding a belief that contradicts behaviour

     Levels of cognitive dissonance depends on two factors: - Do you have a choice? (personal responsibility?) - Is there a good reason to engage in the behaviour? - Three ways to attempt to reduce the cognitive dissonance: - Indirect strategies - Direct strategies - Trivialize inconsistenc  ies 
  8. Dissonance Theory
    • reducing mismatch between behaviors and feelings
    • attempts to reduce cognitive dissonanc when people who are not generally immoral act immorally they can:
    • Change how they understand their immoral act 
    • Minimize their responsibility for it
    • Disregard the negative consequences
    • Blame and dehumanize the victims 
  9. Persuasion: The communicator
    • communicator credibility is key
    • how believable we perceive the communicator to be
    • Components: expertise (knowledgeable) and trustworthiness, similarity and liking
  10. Persuasion: the message
    • two sided approaches most effective
    • perceived as less biased
    • use of fear in messages
  11. Social cognition neuroscience
    the subfield of psychology that attemps to understand social cognition, not only by specifying the cognitive mechanisms that underlie it, but also by discovering how those mechanisms are rooted in the brain
  12. Stereotypes and prejudice: evolutionary perspective
    • stereotypes and prejudice may have had some adaptive value
    • early humans needed to quickly identify other figures as friends or foes
    • pre-wired to perceive different groups as inferior
  13. Realistic conflict theory
    • contributor to stereotypes and prejudice
    • amount of actual conflict between groups determines the amount of prejudice between group
  14. How prejudice confirms itself
    • self-fulfulling prophecies - discriminatory behavrious causes others to behave in a way that confirms our stereotypes
    • stereotype threat - stereotypes create self-consciousness and a fear that they will live up to others' stereotypes
  15. Combating prejudice: contact hypothesis
    • increase awareness of similarities
    • information inconsistent with stereotypes
    • challenge outgroup homogeneity view
    • recategorization
    • jigsaw classroom
  16. Attribution
    • an explanation for the cause of an event or behaviour
    • What caused that behaviour?
    • Personal (internal) attributions - peoples behaviour is caused by their own characteristics
    • situationa (external) attributions - aspects of the situation cause behaviour
  17. Information used in making an attribution
    • consistency - is this consitent / stable over time?
    • distinctiveness - apply to this situation or all situations?
    • consensus - do others agree?
  18. Correspondence Bias
    • aka fundamental attribution error
    • when explaining others' behaviour, tendency to:
    • -underestimate impact of situational factors
    • Overestimate role of personal factors
  19. Self-serving bias
    • more personal attributions of successes
    • more situational attributions for failures
    • strength depends on psychological state
  20. what attracts us to others
    • proximity - repeated contact
    • similarity
    • physical attractiveness (particularly regarding romantic relationships
  21. compliance (6 principles)
    • friendship/liking
    • commitment/consistency
    • scarcity
    • reciprocity
    • social validation
    • authority