Human Anatomy

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Author:
JLonghurst
ID:
26749
Filename:
Human Anatomy
Updated:
2010-07-23 16:35:08
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Lower Limb Muscles
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Description:
Muscles of the Lower Limb
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  1. Quadratus Lumborum:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial half of inferior border of 12th ribs and tips of lumbar transverse processes
  2. Quadratus Lumborum:
    Distal Attachments
    Iliolumbar ligament and internal lip of iliac crest
  3. Quadratus Lumborum:
    Innervation
    Ventral Rami of T12 and L1-L4 nerves
  4. Quadratus Lumborum:
    Action
    Extends and laterally flexes vertebrae column; fixes 12th rib during inspiration
  5. Psoas Major:
    Proximal Attachment
    Sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and discs between them; transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae
  6. Psoas Major:
    Distal Attachment
    Lesser trochanter of femur
  7. Psoas Major:
    Innervation
    Anterior rami of lumbar nerves (L1, L2, L3)
  8. Psoas Major:
    Action
    Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing hip joint. Flexes trunk when sitting
  9. Psoas Minor:
    Proximal Attachment
    Sides of T12-L1 vertebrae and intervertebral discs
  10. Psoas Minor:
    Distal Attachment
    Pectineal line, iliopectineal eminence via iliopectineal arch
  11. Psoas Minor:
    Innervation
    Anterior rami of lumbar nerves (L1, L2)
  12. Psoas Minor:
    Action
    Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing hip joint.
  13. Iliacus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Iliac crest, Iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligaments
  14. Iliacus:
    Distal Attachment
    Tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter, and femur distal to it
  15. Iliacus:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2, L3)
  16. Iliacus:
    Action
    Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing hip joint. Flexes trunk when sitting
  17. Obturator Internus:
    Proximal Attachments
    Internal surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones
  18. Obturator Internus:
    Distal Attachments
    Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa)
  19. Obturator Internus:
    Innervation
    Nerve to Obturator Internus (L5, S1, S2)
  20. Obturator Internus:
    Action
    Laterally rotates an extended thigh; Abducts a flexed thigh; seady femoral head in acetabulum
  21. Piriformis:
    Proximal Attachments
    Anterior surface of sacrum; sacrotuberous ligament
  22. Piriformis:
    Distal Attachments
    Superior border of greater trochanter
  23. Piriformis:
    Innervation
    Anterior Rami of S1 and S2
  24. Piriformis:
    Action
    Laterally rotates an extended thigh; Abducts a flexed thigh; seady femoral head in acetabulum
  25. Coccygeus:
    Proximal Attachments
    Ischial Spine
  26. Coccygeus:
    Distal Attachments
    Inferior end of sacrum and coccyx
  27. Coccygeus:
    Innervation
    Branches of S4 and S5 spinal nerves
  28. Coccygeus:
    Action
    Forms small part of pelvic diaphragm that supports pelvic viscera; flexes coccyx
  29. Levator Ani (3 parts):
    Proximal Attachments
    Body of pubis; tendinous arch of obturator fascia; ischial spine
  30. Levator Ani (3 parts):
    Distal Attachments
    Perineal body; coccyx; anococcygeal ligament; walls of prostate or vagina, rectum, and anal canal
  31. Levator Ani (3 parts):
    Innervation
    Nerve to Levator Ani (S4), inferior anal nerve, and coccygeal plexus
  32. Levator Ani (3 parts):
    Action
    Forms most of pelvic diaphragm that helps support pelvic viscera and resists increases in intra-abdominal pressure
  33. Sartorius:
    Proximal Attachments
    Anterior Superior Iliac Spine and superior part of notch just inferior to it
  34. Sartorius:
    Distal Attachments:
    Superior part of medial surface of tibia
  35. Sartorius:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  36. Sartorius:
    Action
    Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint, (medially rotating leg when knee is flexed)
  37. Rectus Femoris:
    Proximal Attachment
    Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine and Ilium superior to acetabulum
  38. Rectus Femoris:
    Distal Attachment
    Via quadriceps tendon to base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
  39. Rectus Femoris:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  40. Rectus Femoris:
    Action
    Extends leg at knee joint; steadies hip joint and aids iliopsoas in thigh flexion
  41. Vastus Lateralis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea apera of femur
  42. Vastus Lateralis:
    Distal Attachment
    Via quadriceps tendon to base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
  43. Vastus Lateralis:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  44. Vastus Lateralis:
    Action
    Extends leg at knee joint.
  45. Vastus Medialis:
    Proximal Attachments
    Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur
  46. Vastus Medialis:
    Distal Attachments
    Via quadriceps tendon to base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
  47. Vastus Medialis:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  48. Vastus Medialis:
    Action
    Extends leg at knee joint.
  49. Vastus Intermedius:
    Proximal Attachment
    Anterior and lateral surfaces of shaft of femur
  50. Vastus Intermedius:
    Distal Attachment
    Via quadriceps tendon to base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
  51. Vastus Intermedius:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
  52. Vastus Intermedius:
    Action
    Extends leg at knee joint.
  53. Pectineus:
    Proximal Attachments
    Superior ramus of pubis
  54. Pectineus:
    Distal Attachment
    Pectineal line of femur
  55. Pectineus:
    Innervation
    Femoral Nerve (L2-L4); May receive branch from obturator nerve
  56. Pectineus:
    Action
    Adducts and flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh
  57. Adductor Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Body of pubis inferior to pubic crest
  58. Adductor Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Middle third of linea aspera of femur
  59. Adductor Longus:
    Innervation
    Obturator Nerve (L2-L4)
  60. Adductor Longus:
    Action
    Adducts thigh
  61. Adductor Brevis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Body and inferior ramus of pubis
  62. Adductor Brevis:
    Distal Attachment
    Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur
  63. Adductor Brevis:
    Innervation
    Obturator Nerve (L2-L4)
  64. Adductor Brevis:
    Action
    Adducts thigh; some thigh flexion
  65. Adductor Magnus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Adductor Part:Ischiopubic Ramus; Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity
  66. Adductor Magnus:
    Distal Attachment
    Adductor part: gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line; Hamstring Part: Adductor tubercle of femur
  67. Adductor Magnus:
    Innervation
    Adductor part: Obturator Nerve (L2-L4); Hamstring part: tibial part of sciatic nerves (L4-S3)
  68. Adductor Magnus:
    Action
    Adducts thigh; Adductor part: flexes thigh; Hamstring part: Extends thigh
  69. Gracilis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Body and inferior ramus of pubis
  70. Gracilis:
    Distal Attachment
    Superior part of medial surface of tibia
  71. Gracilis:
    Innervation
    Obturator Nerve (L2-L4)
  72. Gracilis:
    Action
    Adducts thigh; flexes leg; rotates thigh medially
  73. Obturator Externus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
  74. Obturator Externus:
    Distal Attachment
    Trochanteric fossa of femur
  75. Obturator Externus:
    Innervation
    Obturator Nerve (L2-L4)
  76. Obturator Externus:
    Action
    Laterally rotates thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum
  77. Gluteus Maximus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, dorsal surfaces of sacrum and coccyx; sacrotuberous ligament
  78. Gluteus Maximus:
    Distal Attachment
    Iliotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity
  79. Gluteus Maximus:
    Innervation
    Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1, S2)
  80. Gluteus Maximus:
    Action
    Extends thigh and assists in lateral rotation; Steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position
  81. Gluteus Medius:
    Proximal Attachment
    External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
  82. Gluteus Medius:
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral surface of greater trochanter
  83. Gluteus Medius:
    Innervation
    Superior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1)
  84. Gluteus Medius:
    Action
    Abducts and medially rotates thigh; Keeps pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance unsupported (opposite) side during swing phase
  85. Gluteus Minimus:
    Proximal Attachment
    External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
  86. Gluteus Minimus:
    Distal Attachment
    Anterior surface of greater trochanter
  87. Gluteus Minimus:
    Innervation
    Superior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1)
  88. Gluteus Minimus:
    Action
    Abducts and medially rotates thigh; Keeps pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance unsupported (opposite) side during swing phase
  89. Superior Gemelli:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ischial Spine
  90. Superior Gemelli:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa)
  91. Superior Gemelli:
    Innervation
    Nerve to Obturator (L5, S1, S2)
  92. Superior Gemelli:
    Action
    Laterally rotates an extended thigh; Abducts a flexed thigh; seady femoral head in acetabulum
  93. Inferior Gemelli:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ischial Tuberosity
  94. Inferior Gemelli:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial surface of greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa)
  95. Inferior Gemelli:
    Innervation
    Nerve to Quadratus Femoris (L5, S1)
  96. Inferior Gemelli:
    Action
    Laterally rotates an extended thigh; Abducts a flexed thigh; seady femoral head in acetabulum
  97. Quadratus Femoris:
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral border of Ischial Tuberosity
  98. Quadratus Femoris:
    Distal Attachment
    Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it
  99. Quadratus Femoris:
    Innervation
    Nerve to Quadratus Femoris (L5, S1)
  100. Quadratus Femoris:
    Action
    Laterally rotates thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum
  101. Semitendinosus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ischial Tuberosity
  102. Semitendinosus:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial surface of superior part of tibia
  103. Semitendinosus:
    Innervation
    Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  104. Semitendinosus:
    Action
    Extend thigh; Flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; Extends trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
  105. Semimembranosus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ischial Tuberosity
  106. Semimembranosus:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia; refelcted attachment forms oblique popliteal ligament (to lateral femoral condyle)
  107. Semimembranosus:
    Innervation
    Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  108. Semimembranosus:
    Action
    Extend thigh; Flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; Extends trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
  109. Biceps Femoris: Long Head:
    Proximal Attachment
    Ischial Tuberosity
  110. Biceps Femoris: Long Head:
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral side of head of fibula;
  111. Biceps Femoris: Long Head:
    Innervation
    Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  112. Biceps Femoris: Long Head:
    Action
    Flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed; Extends thigh
  113. Biceps Femoris: Short Head:
    Proximal Attachment
    Linea Aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
  114. Biceps Femoris: Short Head:
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral side of head of fibula;
  115. Biceps Femoris: Short Head:
    Innervation
    Common fibular division of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  116. Biceps Femoris: Short Head:
    Action
    Flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed; Extends thigh
  117. Gastrocnemius:
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral head: Lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur; Medial Head: Popliteal surface of femur, superior to medial condyle
  118. Gastrocnemius:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
  119. Gastrocnemius:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  120. Gastrocnemius:
    Action
    Plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended; raises heel during walking flexes knee at leg
  121. Soleus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Posterior aspect of head and superior quarter of posterior surface of fibula; soleal line and middle third of medial border of tibia; and tendinous arch extending beteen the bony attachments
  122. Soleus:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
  123. Soleus:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  124. Soleus:
    Action
    Plantarflexes ankle regardless of knee position; Steadies leg on foot
  125. Plantaris:
    Proximal Attachment
    Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur; oblique popliteal ligament
  126. Plantaris:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
  127. Plantaris:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  128. Plantaris:
    Action
    Weakly assists gastroc in plantarflexion of ankle
  129. Popliteus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus
  130. Popliteus:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line
  131. Popliteus:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  132. Popliteus:
    Action
    Weakly flexes knee and unlocks it by rotating femur 5 degrees on fixed tibia; medially rotates tibia of unplanted limb
  133. Flexor Hallucis Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Inferior two thirds of posterior surface of fibula; inferior part of interosseous membrane
  134. Flexor Hallucis Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Base of distal phalanx of great toe
  135. Flexor Hallucis Longus:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  136. Flexor Hallucis Longus:
    Action
    Flexes great toe at all joints; Weakly plantarflexes ankle; Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot
  137. Flexor Digitorum Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line; by a broad tendon to fibula
  138. Flexor Digitorum Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Base of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
  139. Flexor Digitorum Longus:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  140. Flexor Digitorum Longus:
    Action
    Flexes lateal 4 digits; plantarflexes ankle; supports longitudinal arches of foot
  141. Tibialis Posterior:
    Proximal Attachment
    Interosseous membrane; posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line; posterior surface of fibula
  142. Tibialis Posterior:
    Distal Attachment
    Tuberosity of navicular; cuneiform, cuboid, and sustentaculum tali of calcaneus; bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals
  143. Tibialis Posterior:
    Innervation
    Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
  144. Tibialis Posterior:
    Action
    Plantarflexes ankle; inverts foot
  145. Fibularis Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Head and superior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula
  146. Fibularis Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
  147. Fibularis Longus:
    Innervation
    Superficial Fibular Nerve (L5, S1, S2)
  148. Fibularis Longus:
    Action
    Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
  149. Fibularis Brevis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Inferior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula
  150. Fibularis Brevis:
    Distal Attachment
    Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
  151. Fibularis Brevis:
    Innervation
    Superficial Fibular Nerve (L5, S1, S2)
  152. Fibularis Brevis:
    Action
    Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
  153. Tibialis Anterior:
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia and interosseous membrane
  154. Tibialis Anterior:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
  155. Tibialis Anterior:
    Innervation
    Deep Fibular Nerve (L4,L5)
  156. Tibialis Anterior:
    Action
    Dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
  157. Extensor Digitorum Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral condyle of tibia and superior three quarters of medial surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
  158. Extensor Digitorum Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
  159. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    Innervation
    Deep Fibular Nerve (L4,L5)
  160. Extensor Digitorum Longus:
    Action
    Extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle
  161. Extensor Hallucis Longus:
    Proximal Attachment
    Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
  162. Extensor Hallucis Longus:
    Distal Attachment
    Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe
  163. Extensor Hallucis Longus:
    Innervation
    Deep Fibular Nerve (L4,L5)
  164. Extensor Hallucis Longus:
    Action
    Extends great toe and dorsiflexes anlkle
  165. Fibularis Tertius:
    Proximal Attachment
    Inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
  166. Fibularis Tertius:
    Distal Attachment
    Dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
  167. Fibularis Tertius:
    Innervation
    Deep Fibular Nerve (L4,L5)
  168. Fibularis Tertius:
    Action
    Dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of foot
  169. Abductor Digiti Minimi:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; intermuscular septa
  170. Abductor Digiti Minimi:
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  171. Abductor Digiti Minimi:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  172. Abductor Digiti Minimi:
    Action
    Abducts and flexes 5th digit
  173. Abductor Hallucis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus; flexor retinaculum; plantar aponeurosis
  174. Abductor Hallucis:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
  175. Abductor Hallucis:
    Innervation
    Medial Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  176. Abductor Hallucis:
    Action
    Abducts and flexes 1st digit
  177. Flexor Digitorum Brevis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; intermuscular septa
  178. Flexor Digitorum Brevis:
    Distal Attachment
    Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral 4 digits
  179. Flexor Digitorum Brevis:
    Innervation
    Medial Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  180. Flexor Digitorum Brevis:
    Action
    Flexes digits 2-4
  181. Quadratus Plantae:
    Proximal Attachment
    Medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus
  182. Quadratus Plantae:
    Distal Attachment
    Posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus
  183. Quadratus Plantae:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  184. Quadratus Plantae:
    Action
    Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing digits 2-4
  185. Lumbricals:
    Proximal Attachment
    Tendons of flexor digitorum longus
  186. Lumbricals:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial aspect of expansion over digits 2-4
  187. Lumbricals:
    Innervation
    Medial one: Medial Plantar Nerve (S2, S3); Lateral 3: Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  188. Lumbricals:
    Action
    Flex proximal phalanges, extend middle and distal phalanges af digits 2-4
  189. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Base of 5th metatarsal
  190. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis:
    Distal Attachment
    Base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  191. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  192. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis:
    Action
    Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  193. Adductor Hallucis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Oblique Head: Bases of metatarsals of digits 2-4
  194. Adductor Hallucis:
    Distal Attachment
    Tendons of both heads attach to lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
  195. Adductor Hallucis:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  196. Adductor Hallucis:
    Action
    Adducts 1st digit; Assists in transverse arch of foot
  197. Flexor Hallucis Brevis:
    Proximal Attachment
    Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms
  198. Flexor Hallucis Brevis:
    Distal Attachment
    Both sides of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
  199. Flexor Hallucis Brevis:
    Innervation
    Medial Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  200. Flexor Hallucis Brevis:
    Action
    Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit
  201. Plantar Interossei:
    Proximal Attachment
    Bases and medial sides of metatarsals of digits 3-5
  202. Plantar Interossei:
    Distal Attachment
    Medial sides ofbases of phalanges of 3rd-5th digits
  203. Plantar Interossei:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  204. Plantar Interossei:
    Action
    Adduct digits 2-4 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints
  205. Dorsal Interossei:
    Proximal Attachment
    Adjacent sides of metatarsals of digits 1-5
  206. Dorsal Interossei:
    Distal Attachment
    • 1st: Medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit;
    • 2nd-4th digits: Lateral sides of 2-4 digits
  207. Dorsal Interossei:
    Innervation
    Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2, S3)
  208. Dorsal Interossei:
    Action
    Abduct digits 2-4 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints
  209. Tensor Fascia Lata:
    Proximal Attachment
    Anterior Superior Iliac Spine; Anterior part of iliac crest
  210. Tensor Fascia Lata:
    Distal Attachment
    Illiotibial tract, which attaches to the lateral condyle of tibia
  211. Tensor Fascia Lata:
    Innervation
    Superior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1)
  212. Tensor Fascia Lata:
    Action
    Abducts and medially rotates thigh; Keeps pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing and advance unsupported (opposite) side during swing phase

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