chapter 4 theroretical considerations and practical applications

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  1. what are the types of systems used to describe and classify consonants
    • systems using place of artic, voicing and manner of artic
    • systems using distinctive features
  2. phonology
    • the description of the systems and patterns of phonemes that occur in a language
    •       -the smallest unit is a phoneme
    •             -the phonetic level with sounds as a central unit
    •                     -allophones (varied production of sound)- check, cholesterol, choice how is it produced
  3. what are speech sounds
    • phones, allophones are physical forms that occur as a result of physiological processes and that have verifiable accoustic properties
    •       -we view speech sounds from their end product (what they are after production)
  4. what are phonemes
    defined based on their function or how they are produced as they are not always produced in the same way in every word
  5. speech sound v. phoneme
    in order for an utterance to have meaning, the audible sequence of speech sounds and their meaning must be conveyed
  6. when is an utterance incomplete
    • you hear the words but don't understand the meaning
    • you can't hear the words to understand the meaning
    • there is an omission (bee for beet) the meaning may be misunderstood
  7. what do you need in order for communication to occur
    • adequate form and function must occur
    • form and function combine into meaning during an utterance and then the message is transmitted
    • sound segments require adequate production in order to functionally deliver the message
    •       -sub of key for tea changes the meaning
    • seg funciton is required for seg form
  8. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    distinctive feature
    • any property that separates a subset of elements from a group 
    •     -elelments that distinguish between phonemes
    •     -considered to be universal properties of speech segs and can be used in all langs
    •     -are the smallest indivisible sound (can't be made smaller) which are properties that establish phonemes
    • they are a series of differences and similarities
  9. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    what does distinctive features allow for
    • the description of both any single manner or place or articulation and also groups of manners or places that do act together in phonological systems
    • attempt to document specific speech sound components that constitute sounds
    • allows for classification of errors by substitutions, deletions and distortions
  10. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    minimal pairs
    • two phones are different phonemes if at least one of their features is different
    •     -/p/=+consonantal, +anterior, -voice
    •     -/b/=+consonantal, +anterior, +voice
    • what looks like several errors may actually be a common problem of not having learned a single feature
    •     -ex= the errors may be on all [+] strident sounds
    • pin-bin, pin-sin, pin-gin
  11. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    what did jakobson say about the theories
    • theory indicates that children acqurie features rather than sound therefore,
    • children can understand and differentiate between the distinctive features which leads to learning the correct features in remediation (ex voicing, tongue placement etc)
    • when using distinctive features, one must be careful not ot ignore errors that might not fit in the particular theory
  12. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    generative phonology
    • an outgrowth of distinctive feature theory
    • prior to generative phonology, distinctive feature theory concentrated on phonetic and phonemic features
    • it is the application of principals of generative or transformational grammar
    •     -related to surface forms of production to phonology
  13. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    what does generative phonology include
    • the underlying form/representation: a theoretical concept thought to represent the mental reality of how people use language
    •     -underlying form includes the person's language competency as an aspect of cognitive capacity and allows the description of the regularities of speech in relation to morphology and syntax
    •              -diagramming sentences
  14. Distinctive Feature Theory:
    generative distinctive features
    • noam chomsky and morris halle developed the sound patterns of english
    • 5 features that determine the differences between phonemes
    • they are: 
    •      -major class features
    •      -cavity features
    •      -manner of articulation features
    •      -source features
    •      -prosodic features
    • these allow you to determine cluster errors and remediation of one can help with the remediation of others in the cluster
  15. generative distinctive features:
    major class features
    they are characterized and distinguished between 3 sound production possibilities that result in 3 sound classes: sonorant, consonantal, vocalic
  16. generative distinctive features:
    major class features
    • in phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract (open vocal tract to promote voice)
    • vowels, glides nasals, liquids
    • /m, n, ng, r, l, w, dz, h/
  17. generative distinctive features:
    major class features
    • produced with high degree of obstruction 
    • stops, frics, affrics, liquids, nasals
    • only sonsonants that are not consonantal are /w, dz, h/ and all vowels 
    • a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract
    • ex include p, t, k etc
  18. generative distinctive features:
    major class features
    • sounds produced with little oral obstruction
    • vowels and liquids
    • r,l
  19. generative distinctive features:
    • cavity features are active and or passive place of artic
    • include 9 features: coronal, anterior, distributed, nasal, lateral, high, low, back, round
  20. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    • where does tongue land when in use
    • sounds are articulated with the tip and or blade of the tongue. these include consonants, which can be made with the tip, blade or underside of the tongue making contact with the upper lip, between the teeth, with the back of the teeth, with the alveolar  ridge, behind the alveolar ridge, or on or in front of the hard palate /t, d, th, n, l, r, s, z, ∫, t∫, dz/
  21. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    • sounds are produced in the frontal area of hte oral cavity with the alveolar ridge as the posterior border
    • labial, dental and alveolar consonants
    • /p, b, t, d, th, f, v, s, z, m, n, l/
  22. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    • long oral-sagital constriction
    • ∫, s, z
  23. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    • few languages contain no nasal
    • voiceless nasals do occur in a few langs, such as Burmese and Welsh
    • most nasals are voiced and [n] and [m] are among the most common sounds cross-linguistically
    • acoustically, nasal stops are sonorants, thay do not significantly restrict the escape of air
    • nasals are also stops because the flow of air through the mouth is blocked completely
  24. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    • sounds produced with a lowered lateral portion of the tongue
    • /l/
  25. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    high, low, back
    • the term high is used to describe a vowel sound which is articulated with the tongue raised in the vocal tract, creating a relatively closed vocal tract.
    •     -ed of high vowels in english are i and I
    •     -high tongue production: consonants /k,g,∫, dz, t∫, w, j/
    • back vowels: used to describe a vowel sound which is articulated with the tongue body toward the back of the vocal tract
    •     -oo and 
    • low vowels are pronounced with the tongue bulk low in the mouth
  26. generative distinctive features:
    cavity features
    whether the lips are rounded or not
  27. generative distinctive features:
    manner of articulation features
    • specifies the way the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract
    • includes:
    •     -continuant
    •     -delayed release
    •     -tense
  28. generative distinctive features: 
    manner of articulation features
    • continual sound production without blocking the airstream /th, f, v/
    • vowels, frics, glides and liquids (+continuant)
    • stips, nasals, affricate (-continuant)
  29. generative distinctive features:
    manner of articulation features
    delayed release
    • sounds produced with slow release of total obstruction in the oral cavity
    • affrics /∫, dz/ (+delayed release)
  30. generative distinctive features: 
    manner of articulation features
    • produced with tightness of muscles and air release
    • /p, t, k, l, u/ (+tense)
  31. generative distinctive features: 
    source features
    referrring to subglottal air pressure, voicing and stridency of production
  32. generative distinctive features: 
    source features
    sounds included added airflow to produce the sound: /p, t, k/
  33. generative distinctive features: 
    source features
    sounds produced with vocal fold vibration: all glides, liquids, nasals, voiced stops, frics and affrics
  34. generative distinctive features: 
    source features
    speech sounds produced by forcing air through a constricted passage (as f, s, z, or th)
  35. generative distinctive features: 
    prosodic features
    • naturalness: the simplicity in which the sound is made and the frequency of the sound occurrence (natural sounds are called unmarked)
    • requires that input and output forms are identical
  36. generative distinctive features: 
    prosodic features
    • sounds that are more difficult to produce and less frequently occur (marked)
    •     -the way words are changed or added to give a special meaning 
    •     -faithfulness and markedness are opposing, antagonistic properties mediated by the evaluator to determine the optimal output
    •     -optimal output is determined by the properties of that particular lang
  37. generative distinctive features:
    prosodic features
    markedness and male endings
    • male endings are unmarked but female endings are marked
    • ess and ette are used
  38. natural phonology theory
    • natural phonology is a functional theory relating lang to other domains of human life
    • belief that lang is not an autonomous cognitive faculty and i has implication for the representation of linguistic knowledge and processes governing lang use
    • incorporates features of naturalness theories to detail or explain the development of a child's phonological system
  39. natural phonology theory:
    phonological processes
    • innate and universal, therefore all children should be able to produce the same sounds
    • the theory points out prominent developmental steps that children go through as they develop adult speech
  40. natural phonology theory:
    assumptions of mechanisms for change
    • limitations
    • ordering
    • suppression
  41. natural phonology theory:
    • occurs when differences between a child's and adult's systems become limitd to only specific sounds, classes of sounds or sound sequences (ex all frics take on the sam e characteristics such as a stip, then they may become limited to just a few of the frics
    • these are adaptive changes int he gradual acquisition of adult system
  42. natural phonology theory:
    • substitutions that appeared unordered and random become more ordered
    •     -also part of the gradual revision of the phonological system from the child to adult system
    • the child begins with unordered revisions that become ordered by using a closer sound or more consistenly using the sam sound substitution
  43. natural phonology theory:
    • elimination of one or more phonological processes as children develop adult patterns
    •     -the substitution process becomes suppressed
  44. natural phonology theory:
    natural phonological processes
    • those processes that are common in the speech development of children across langs
    • it is an innate phonological system that revises as it matures from childhood to adulthood (as th ability to produce sounds matures)
    • simplification of production of complex words
  45. natural phonology theory:
    what are phonological processes classified as
    • syllable structure processes: describe sound changes that affect the structure of the syllable
    •     -cluster reductions reduces cluster to a single consonant (poon/spoon)
    •     -reduplication second syllable becomes a duplicate of the first (wawa/water)
    •     -weak syllable deletion meaning omitting weak syllable nana/banana
    • substitution processes: describe those sound changes where one sound class is replaced by another
    •     -consonant cluster subs in which one of the members of a cluster are replaced (stweet/sweet)
    • assimilatory processes: changes where a sound becomes similar to a neighboring sound
    •     -Labial assimilation (change nonlabial to labial fwing/swing)
    • ◦      Velar assimilation (change nonvelar to velar gog/dog)
    • ◦      Nasal assimilation (non-nasal sound influenced by a nasal  munee/bunny)
    • ◦      Liquid assimilation (nonliquid influenced by a liquid sound  lello/yellow)
  46. changes in active or passive articulator/organ or place of artic
    fronting, substitute front produced sound for more anterior produced sound t/k tee/key
  47. labialization
    replace nonlabial with labial fum/thumb
  48. alveolarization
    replace nonalv with alv sum/thumb
  49. stopping
    sub stop for a fric tun/sun, dus, juice
  50. affrication
    replace frics for affrics tshu/shoe
  51. deaffrication
    production of affrics as frics sheez/cheese
  52. denasalization
    replace nasals for stops dud/noon
  53. gliding of liquids/frics
    replace frics or liquids with glide wed/red
  54. vocalization/vowelization
    replace liquids and nasals with vowels tabo/table
  55. phonological processes analysis identifies by what errors
    • substitution
    • syllable structure
    • assimilatory changes
    • allows for analysis of patterns used mot frequently (both errors and correct production)
  56. analyze sample according to phonological processes by
    • identifying the process that best describes the change 
    • tally the number of times the individual uses each process and list them on the summary sheet
  57. linear v. nonlinear phonologies
    • linear phonologies including distinctive feature theories include:
    • a linear or sequential arrangement of sounds
    • each segment has its own group of distinctive features
    • they follow a binary + an - system
    • the phonological rules apply only to the segmental level rather than a deeper level
  58. linear v. nonlinear phonologies
    • single sound segments are seen as being governed by more complex linguistic dimensions such as stress, intonation, metrical and rhythmical factors
    • segments governed by more complex linguistic dimensions
  59. linear v. nonlinear phonologies
    auto segmental phonology
    • factors out changes within the boundary of a segment by putting them in another tier
    • There can be more than one tier
    •     -metrical phonology:organizing segments into groups of relative prominence. segments are organized into syllables, syllables into metircal feet, feet into phonological words, and words into larger units (metric trees)
  60. what are metric trees used for
    • used to reflect the syntactic structure of an utterance using stress patterns and syntactic boundaries
    • this involves binary branching of the metrical trees
  61. feature geometry
    • uses tiered representations like auto segmental phonology
    •     -add other hierarchically ordered fearture tiers to explain why some features are affected and others are not
    • these tiers interact iwth each other as nodes
    • includes manner, laryngeal, place features
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chapter 4 theroretical considerations and practical applications
2014-03-23 01:00:50
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443 artic
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