Chpt 16 vocab

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johnnyo62
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267495
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Chpt 16 vocab
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2014-03-22 18:45:15
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respiratory
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all the vocabulary words from chp 16 respiratory emergencies
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  1. A ridgelike projection of tracheal cartilage located where the trachea bifurcates into the right and left mainstem bronchi.
    carina
  2. Contorted position of the hand or foot in which the fingers or toes flex in a clawlike manner; may result from hyperventilation or hypocalcemia.
    carpopedal spasm
  3. A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is characterized by excessive mucus production as a result of overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airways.
    chronic bronchitis
  4. The hairlike microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface.
    cilia
  5. Heart disease that develops because of chronic lung disease, affecting primarily the right side of the heart.
    cor pulmonale
  6. The breath sounds produced as fluid-filled alveoli pop open under increasing inspiratory pressure; can be fine or coarse; formerly called rales.
    crackles
  7. A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx; the first ring of the trachea and the only upper airway structure that forms a complete ring; also called the cricoid ring.
    cricoid cartilage
  8. A thin, superficial membrane located between the thyroid and cricoid cartilage that is relatively avascular and contains few nerves; the site for emergency surgical and nonsurgical access to the airway.
    cricothyroid membrane
  9. A common disease of childhood due to upper airway obstruction and characterized by stridor, hoarseness, and a barking cough.
    croup
  10. Any portion of the airway that contains air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.
    dead space
  11. The production of large amounts of urine by the kidney.
    diuresis
  12. The infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma.
    emphysema
  13. The carbon dioxide contained in the last few milliliters of exhaled air; the unit of measure is a percentage.
    end-tidal carbon dioxide
  14. The process by which oxygen-depleted blood from the pulmonary circulation releases carbon dioxide and is enriched with oxygen; occurs by diffusion at the interface of the alveoli and the pulmonary capillary bed; newly oxygen-enriched blood enters the cardiac circulation for distribution to the body’s tissues.
    gas exchange
  15. The vocal cords and the opening between them.
    glottis
  16. The mucus-producing cells found mainly in the respiratory and intestinal tracts.
    goblet cells
  17. A mesh filter placed in the inferior vena cava to catch blood clots in patients who are at high risk of pulmonary embolus.
    Greenfield filter
  18. A disease of unknown cause that involves progressive paralysis that moves from the feet to the head (ascending paralysis); if paralysis reaches the diaphragm, the patient may require respiratory support; can lead to paralysis within 2 weeks.
    Guillain-Barré syndrome
  19. An iron-containing protein within red blood cells that has the ability to combine with oxygen.
    hemoglobin
  20. Coughing up blood.
    hemoptysis
  21. A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
    Hering-Breuer reflex
  22. A situation in which a person’s stimulus to breathe comes from a decrease in Pao2 rather than the nor- mal stimulus, an increase in PaCO2
    hypoxic drive
  23. The visible bulging of the jugular veins when a patient is in semi-Fowler’s or full Fowler’s position; indicates inadequate blood movement through the heart and/or lungs; also called jugular venous distention.
    jugular vein distention
  24. A respiratory pattern characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, with marked hyperpnea and tachypnea.
    Kussmaul respirations
  25. Inflammation of the larynx,
    trachea, and bronchi.
    laryngotracheobronchitis
  26. A complete structure formed by the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, corniculate cartilage, and cuneiform cartilage; the voice box.
    larynx
  27. The process by which cells from a malignant neoplasm break away from their site of origin, such as the lung, and move through the bloodstream or lymphatic sys- tem to other body sites, such as the brain.
    metastasis
  28. The sound of one note during wheezing, caused by the vibration of a single bronchus.
    monophonic
  29. Severe dyspnea experienced when recumbent and relieved by sitting or standing up.
    orthopnea
  30. One of three sets of lymphatic organs that constitute the tonsils; located in the back of the throat, on each side of the posterior opening of the oral cavity; help protect the body from bacteria introduced into the mouth and nose.
    palatine tonsils
  31. The functional portions of a gland or solid organ.
    parenchyma
  32. Two pockets of tissue on the lateral borders of the larynx.
    piriform fossae
  33. Excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.
    pleural effusion
  34. An inflammation of the lungs caused by bac- terial, viral, or fungal infections or infections with other microorganisms.
    pneumonia
  35. Inflammation of the lung; implies lung inflammation from an irritant such as a chemical, dust, or radiation, or from aspiration.
    pneumonitis
  36. The production of more red blood cells over time, making the blood “thick”; a characteristic of people who have chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxia.
    polycythemia
  37. The sound of multiple notes during wheezing;
    caused by the vibrations of many bronchi.
    polyphonic
  38. A false membrane formed by a dead tissue layer; seen in the posterior pharynx of patients with diphtheria.
    pseudomembrane
  39. A weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inhalation, equivalent to a drop in the systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more; commonly seen in patients with pericardial tamponade or severe asthma.
    pulsus paradoxus
  40. Full of pus; having the character of pus.
    purulent
  41. Rattling, bubbling, or crackling lung sounds indicative of fluid in the small airways; also known as crackles.
    rales
  42. A term used to describe any con- dition that causes hyperreactive bronchioles and broncho- spasm.
    reactive airway disease
  43. Diseases that limit the ability of the lungs to expand appropriately. Skeletal abnormalities (kyphosis and scoliosis) are a common example of restrictive lung disease.
    restrictive lung diseases
  44. Skin pulling between and around the ribs and clavicles during inhalation; a sign of respiratory distress.
    retractions
  45. Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients who chronically have mucus in the airways (singular, rhonchus).
    rhonchi
  46. A situation in which a portion of the output of the right side of the heart reaches the left side of the heart without being oxygenated in the lungs; may be caused by atelectasis, pulmonary edema, or a variety of other conditions. In hemodialysis, an anastomosis between a peripheral artery and vein.
    shunt
  47. A severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be stopped with conventional treatment, such as the administration of epinephrine.
    status asthmaticus
  48. Vibrations in the chest that can be felt with a hand on the chest as the patient breathes.
    tactile fremitus
  49. Three bony shelves that protrude from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and extend into the nasal passage- way, parallel to the nasal floor; they increase the surface area of the nasal mucosa, thereby improving warming, filtering, and humidification of inhaled air.
    turbinates
  50. A collection of pus in a sac, formed by necrotic tis- sues and an accumulation of white blood cells; the immune system creates the sac to prevent spread of the infection
    abscess
  51. A vascular reaction that may have an allergic cause and may result in profound swelling of the tongue and lips.
    angioedema
  52. Alveolar collapse that prevents use of that por- tion of the lungs for ventilation and oxygenation.
    atelectasis
  53. Deep cyanosis of the face and neck and across the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow; a particularly ominous sign.
    cape cyanosis
  54. Severe constriction of the bronchial tree
    bronchospasm

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