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What is biology?
The study of life.
How is life defined?
- Life is defined by 8 characteristics.
- 1. DNA
- 2. Reproduction
- 3. Evolution
- 4. Assimilation of energy
- 5. Maintenance of internal conditions
- 6. Organization of structure
- 7. Must respond to environment
- 8. Cellular
What is biodiversity?
The variation in organisms.
What two components make up biodiversity?
- Sources of where we find biodiversity.
- 1. Terrestrial
- 2. Aquatic
- 3. Marine
- Levels of biodiversity
- 1. Genetic
- 2. Organismal
- 3. Ecological
What is Genetic Diversity
The variation in genes that differs one species from another. DNA.
What is organism diversity?
The variation in physical traits or behaviors.
What is ecological diversity?
The combination of communities and living things from the environment that they live in.
When is diversity good?
It maintains balance. If every species only hunts one other organism, populations shrink and domination occurs.
Why is it difficult to determine species?
- -Common traits are not always due to relatedness
Think gorillas and bats
What are the challenges of taxonomy?
It does not include DNA, you are grouping by physical form only.
How do scientists differentiate between species?
What is an ecosystem?
All living and non living things interacting within a given area.
What is a community?
Interaction between living species.
Difference between ecosystem and community?
A ecosystem has abiotic and biotic factors, a community only includes living factors.
Define biotic factors.
Living things impacting other living things.
Example: trees provide oxygen for us.
Define abiotic factors.
Non-living things impacting living things.
Example: The sun stimulates plant growth through photosynthesis.
Define intraspecies competition.
Competition between two organisms of the same species.
Example: grazing cattle.
Define interspecies competition.
Competition between two organisms of different species.
Example: Trees competing for sunlight and forest floor space.
A (+/+) relationship, where both parties benefit.
Example: Ibex and babboons
A (+/0) relationship where only one member benefits, but the other is not bothered.
Example: barnacles and whales.
A (+/-) relationship where one member benefits and the other is harmed.
Example: Ticks and humans
What happens when Niches overlap?
How does climate change affect ecosystems?
Climate change leads to the rise in sea temperatures, which is causing highly sensitive coral to bleach because the bacteria that lives inside of them (zooxanthalle) can only survive in stable conditions.
Mountains are eroding
What is conservation biology?
Studying nature and biodiversity with the intentions of protecting species, habitats and ecosystem diversity.
Determining the value of biodiversity
What is a population?
The total number of species that live in a geographical area.
How does genetics relate to evolution?
Mutations drive evolution. If mutations are favorable, those genes will be passed on, if they are not, they will die off.
The perminent change in DNA. Mutations can be passed through sexual intercourse or passed through alleles
Define genetic flow
The transfer of alleles from one population to another, often caused by migration.
Define genetic drift
The change in allele frequency over time.
Define natural selection
Survival of the fittest, those best equipped will survive.
Define sexual selection
The ability to successfully pass on genes, those best equipped with most favorable genes will pass them on.
Does genetic drift have a bigger effect on small or large populations?
The effect is most significant on small populations.
A shrink in population due to disaster or human impact.
Define the Founder effect
When a group of the same species gets separated and develops different genes.
Who was Mendel?
Mendel was a biologist
What did Mendel do?
He studied the genetics behind pea plants in New Zealand. From his studies he made three significant discoveries.
What were Mendel's discoveries?
1. Genes come in pairs
2. Genes do not blend throughout generations
3. Laws of segregation: Alleles separate prior to fertilization
What three things are needed to evolve by natural selection?
1. Must produce more offspring than will survive
2. Phenotypes must vary among species
3. Phenotypes must be inherited
What is the difference between phenotypic plasticity and evolution?
Phenotypic plasticity occurs during the lifetime of an organism.
Evolution occurs over generations and must be inherited.
What is a biodiversity hotspot?
An area that contains a high level of species diversity that are threatened with extinction.
What components define a biodiversity hotspot?
1. The hotspot must have 1500 (5%) of the world's population of plant species
2. The hotspot must be subjected to 70% habitat loss
How much area do hotspots cover?
1.5% of the earth's surface.
They previously covered 12%
Why is it okay to consider plants when quantifying a hotspot's diversity?
1. Plants are immobile
2. Plant's are at the bottom of the food chain
Why is Madagascar so unique as a hotspot?
It has over 16,000 plant species, 90% are endemic.
It has over 300 bird species, 60% are endemic.
What is the biggest threat to Madagascar's diversity?
How can we slow the threat.
Deforestation, more specifically, slash-and-burn.
Fix: Renewing topsoil, education, scattering crops, imposing fines
DNA that is passed to a child
Define gene pool
A set of all genes in any population, usually a particular species
Physical traits or behaviors
The genetic makeup of an organism. The genotype determines the phenotype.
An organism with identical alleles of a gene.
Example: BB, bb
An organism with differing alleles of a gene.
Example Bb, bB
Expressed in the heterozygous condition physically
NOT expressed in the heterozygous condition physically