Cardiac Def & Numbers
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Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
Normal MAP is between 60-70mm Hg
- The amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle every minute
- Normal range is 4-7L/min
the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle during each contractino
the degree of myocardial fiber stretch at the end of diastole and just before contraction
- The pressure or resistance that the ventricles must overcome to eject blood through the semi-lunar valves into the peripheral blood vessels
the peripheral component of afterload, its the pressure that he heart must overcome to open the aortic valve
force of the cardiac contraction independent of preload, it effects the CO and SV
What is the equation for BP? What three mechanisms regulate BP?
BP is regulated by the ANS (fight or flight), the kidneys which detect changes, endocrine system which send hormones to stimulate the sympathetic nervous sytem
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)
After laying down for several hours, blood pools in the venous system. For the diseased heart, the increase in preload causes pulmonary congestion. The patient awakens abruptly from sleep feeling as if they are suffocating
Paradoxial blood pressure
an exaggerated decrease in systolic pressure by more than 10 mm Hg during inhalation.
Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)
- Asses the vascular status of the lower extremities
- Obtain brachial pulses. Place BP cuff on leg just above maleous. Measure systolic by doppler at both the tibial and pedal. Divide the higher number by the higher brachial pulse.
- BP in the legs is usually higher due to gravity, therefore it should be equal to or greater than 1
What is the difference between a hypokinetic and a hyperkinetic pulse?
- Hypokinetic: weak pulse indicitive of a narrow pulse pressure
- Hyperkinetic: bounding pulse caused by increased ejection of blood
the self excitable pacing function of the heart
the non pacemaker heart cells respond to the electrical impulses from cell to cell
the ability of the atrial and ventricular muscle cells to shorten their fiber lengths in response to electrical stimulation
- isoelectric line from the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex
- The pulse is slowed down as it travels through the AV node
from the beginning of the P wave until the end of the R. Time required for atrial repolarization and the impulse delay in the AV node for the pulse to reach the perkinji fibers
represents atrial depolarization. In atrial fib, it is indistinguishable. In Atrial flutter, it looks like a saw tooth
represents early ventricular polarization. May be elevated in MI or angina
represents ventricular repolarization
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