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- -aka ferro concrete or reinforced concrete
- -most commonly applied to a mixture of Portland cement and sand applied over layers of woven or expanded steel mesh and closely spaced small diameter steel rods rebard
moment resisting frame
complete from supporting gravity loads and moment resisting frames that resist lateral loads
complete frame that supports gravity loads and a combination of shear walls or braced frames plus moment-resisting frames which resist lateral loads
a hinge or pin...
.. is free to rotate and therefore has not resistance to moment
Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
- -traditional method for structural steel design
- -the actual dead and live loads are unfactored, that is, not increased
- -the factor of safetly varies depending on the type of stress to which the structural member is subjected
- -for ex: for flexural stresses, shear stresses, and axial compression stresses, the factor of safety is equal to 1.67, while for tension stresses on the net section and shear stresses in bolts, the factor of safety is equal to 2
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
- -sometimes called limit states design, is a newer method of designing steel structures, in which various loads (dead, live, etc) are multiplied by their respective load factors
- -nominal strength, which is most often the yeild strength, is multiplied by a resistance factor , which is general less than 1
- -primary objective of LRFD is to provide more uniform reliability for all steel structures under vairous loading conditions
a longitudinal load that acts at the centroid of a member and perpendicular to its cross-section
It characterizes the behavior of a structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicular to the axis of the element.
building period rule of thumb
An approximate rule of thumb is that the building period equals the number of stories divided by ten.
The response spectrum generally shows the accelerations (on the vertical ordinate) that may be expected at varying periods (the horizontal ordinate).