Exam III. 1 (Overview/ Mosses)
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So far we talked about photosynthetic organisms. __ are not. Difference between cyanobacteria and algae versus plants is plants are __; the others are __.
- Slime molds and fungi and water molds
LOCATION AND STRUCTURE
i. Some have done what, causing them to be __.
a. Mostly terrestrial and all multicellular (no unicellular)
evolved back into the water; aquatic
diplobiontic: alternation of heteromorphic generations
What is heteromorphic?
- i. the haploid and diploid plant are going to look different
- 1. Size wise makes a difference: ex: which is larger, sporophyte and gametophyte
- a. One of the two phases dominates
Terms for the reproductive structures and description
1. Antheridium: produces sperm; Multicellular with a layer of cells that are sterile; Sterile cells will never produce sperm cells
2. Archegonium: produces egg (a single egg); Multicellular with a layer of cells that are sterile; At maturity, there is an opening at the top
Explain the archegonium when still mature.
- a. When still mature, the neck will have neck canal cells (not in photo)
- i. They have to disintegrate; release a chemical that attracts sperm
- 1. Movement of sperm from antheridium to archegonium is not hard/ hindered; there is an opening that will let it in
Bryophtes are the __.
How many groups? What are they?
simplest group of terrestrial plants
- Three different groups:
- 1) mosses
- 2) liverworts
- 3) hornworts
Moss is the phylum __.
What are some mistakes of flowers that people assumed were moss?
- Spanish moss (related to pineapple)
- Rose moss
- Irish Moss (alga)
- Club Moss (actually a vascular plant)
a. Dominant phase of Moss is the __
i. Cells are __and every now and then, you can see the __(as long as it is what?); __, meaning __. __
ii. Tends to be __ and __
iii. Usually grown in __, meaning what?
- permanently attached to gametophyte
- can be there or not
- upright and leafy
- not just one gametophyte, but a lot together
i. Stemlike structure with “__” on it; the equivalent of roots are __
1. There for __
ii. Explain the cells
iii. __ distinguish it from fungal hyphae
iv. Color due to its __
1. Upright portion is mostly __; you may/ may not have an __
- branching filaments of cells called rhizoids
- Single row of cells, which can grow
- Slanted crosswalls
i. In the stem like portion, some can do what?; __(different structure than xylem structures do)
1. Ones that carry food are __; not similar
a. A lot of mosses don’t have it at all
2. __helps the water travel, but it is very slow
- transport food and water
a. Mosses are small in general because what? i. Probably get a lot of their water from __
1. Have stayed very small in size
ii. Can grow on __; so, they can dry out and then come back
because of their very slow water travel
What is the structure?
i. Rather upright and have what resemble leaves, but is really a thallus (a plant body that has not a lot of specialized tissue)
i. __—germinate and develop into something that looks very much like a __called a __[which are __] budlike structures begin to form (called “__”)--> develop into upright __(the buds will be the same genetically) [can end up with male __]
- green alga (filamentous and branching)
- male or female and multicellular
- gametophytes x2
The gametophytes produce __(and sometimes, depending on the species of moss, the top of the __ will look different than __; not true in all mosses]--> at the tip of the leafy gametophyte, the __ forms (a lot can form)-->each __produces a bunch of sperm, not all of which will be used and at the top of the __, you have what happening?
- male gametophyte
- female gametophyte
- antheridia or archegonia forms
- an egg forming (not many)
sperm can get through to egg of archegonia through __--> the sperm still have to do what?; it needs to get down to the egg, which is carried out through __--> __--> __--> develop inside __, forming an __--> as it grows, it develops into the __, which will stay permanently attached to __; once the __is mature, it will be parasitic on __(no longer photosynthetic so they need the __for food)
- find the egg once on top of the gametophyte
1. In pictures, where is the sporophyte located in relation to the gametophyte?
a. The __is the part that is embedded
b. There is also a long __, which at the end, contains __, where all the __are made
i. For every sporangia, there’s only one __
the gametophyte is usually located below the sporophyte (the bottom part of the sporophyte is embedded in the gametophyte called the foot)
ONE sporangium called the capsule
a. As the sporophyte gets longer, the __ gets bigger as the sporophyte grows, but eventually, what happens? There is a __at the end of the capsule that is the remnant of the __called the __(2n)
i. When the __comes off, you end up with __, which look like little caps as well. These cells are __and are part of __
1. Function is what?
- it gets torn apart
- little hairy cap
- protection so that the spores stay inside the capsule during development
i. Eventually , it dries up and gets blown by the wind, revealing__
1. Intestesting: the cells that make up the __are sensitive to __and teeth-like structures do what, depending on what?
- a ring of teeth called the peristome
- change shape, depending onhumidity
When do they close and open?
2. Fairly simple structure: __
a. In the capsule, the spores are produced by __
- They close when it is raining because the rain might carry it right down to the bottom of the plant where they will die
- They are open when its dry and windy to transport the spores
- foot, stalk, capsule
i. In the case of mosses, the __is fairly long
b. They are __
i. They are capable of __from the environment
- attracting and holding water molecules
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