carpentry 1- preliminary building operations
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what are the 2 major concerns of building codes?
- 1. structural soundness
- 2. prevention and control of fire
list 3 groups of organizations that can be identified as local authorities.
- 1.city planning board
- 2.local development companies
- 3.safety code accredited agency
what is the purpose of bylaws?
protect environment, ensure high standard of public health and safety, and maintain an orderly appearance
what is the function of a building permit?
alert proper authorities to ensure inspection can be carried out and maintain public safety
2 examples of the type of work for which a building is not required are?
- 1. fences
- 2. paint and general maintenance
what must be posted at the building site before work can begin?
a building permit card which shows the permit has been approved is current and signed by inspector
if you perform work according to the plans, why must the building inspector perform on site inspections?
because not everything is shown in the plans (stud spacing etc..) so they have to make sure it meets the national building code also make sure good construction practices are being fallowed
what is the function of a legal survey?
they establish boundaries that create a framework for the identification, documentation, registration, and protection of interest on lands
what is a real property report?
legal documentation that illustrates in detail, building, decks, fences, and physical features relative to property boundaries
what info can be found on a plot plan?
shows shape of the lot and location of existing/future buildings, diminsions, grades, and elevation grades as well as drainage pattern, lot contour and building elevations
what is the name of the point of reference from which elevations are established?
datum point, or benchmark
what info do elevation/contours lines provide?
show variations in elevation and often included on the plot plan to depict slope of the property
what is the best load bearing soil?
next to rock sand or gravel
why is it important to remove the topsoil before construction?
because black dirt is high in organic materials and is not stable, it does not compact well and settles
why is it important to locate the supports for a structure below the frost line?
frost that penetrates into moist soil causes swelling which can cause high pressure cousing shifting cracking or even building failure
what determines the level of the water table?
the level of the water table is the point at which the ground is saturated with water
does backfill provide suitable support for foundations?
no because it does not provide suitable bearing
who typically locates the building on the site in an urban area?
a registered land surveyor, they return after foundation is laid and prepare a survey certificate
identify 3 methods of checking for square.
- 1. pythagorean theorem 3,4,5
- 2. cross chain which involves measuring diagonals created by four corners with a tape measure
- 3.confirm that all layout dimensions are correct.. this does not insure square
where should batter boards be located?
should be the same elevation and level approx. 300mm above ground and far enough from building to not affect excavation approx. 1200mm at building corners
how should lines be attached to batter boards?
nails in the horizontal top board, or a saw kerf can be used. nails can be used as temporary locations for the strings until the squarness of the building is verified by checking. the saw kerfs are then cut as a more reliable attachment point for the lines
batter boards may be accidentally moved before the building lines can be re established. what is one alternative to using batter boards?
flagged nails and offsets to re establish building lines
identify one method of transferring the building lines to the bottom of the excavation.
combination of transit set up and measurements taken with a long tape
who identifies the job site datum point or benchmark?
the developer or licensed land surveyor
what instruments are typically used to establish depth of cut and the top of the footing elevation?
builders level or laser level
what type of operations can a builder's level be used for?
set elevations or determine differnces in elevations
why can an automatic level be slightly off level and still be accurate?
because the suspended prism compensates for up to 12 deg. out of level
identify one advantage of the rotary laser level.
only one person is needed to operate it and once set up it can be left unattended
is it safe to look directly at a visible laser beam?
no it should be set above or below eye height
is it dangerous to look at an infrared laser?
how level should you adjust the top of the tripod before mounting the instrument?
as level as possible
what is one alternative to using a graduated rod to transfer elevations?
a straight stick of sufficient length. elevation changes are marked on the stick with a pencil and measurements and calculations are made from the marks
what is one advantage that a water level has over optical and laser levels?
they are not dependent on the line of sight
what should you always do before you excavate?
locate underground utilities and call alberta one call
list 7 factors that can influence the depth of an excavation.
- 1. depth of frost penetration
- 2.height of the first floor level above finished grade
- 3. size of windows in basement walls
- 4. most residential applications, the depth of the excavation must include the depth of footing
- 5. contour of the land
- 6. depth of sanitary sewer lines
- 7. other buildings in the area
when can working in an excavation be similar to working in a trench?
if it is more than 1.5 m (4'11") deep and closer to the wall or bank than the depth of the excavation
what should be done with topsoil stripped from site?
if it's good loam, it may be required for landscaping on the site after the construction is compete. topsoil should be stripped and piled by itself out of the way of construction
what is a control zone for utilities?
a control zone is generally the area 1 m on either side of location marks. some special cases, such as fibre optics and high pressure pipelines have a control zone of 5 meters
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