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What is ecology?
study of distribution and abundance of organisms
biology vs ecology
interactions in environment
non-living term and examples
Living term and examples
what is easier to quantify, abiotic or biotic?
who were the 1st ecologist?
- hunters & gathers
- -where to go for food
- distribution and abundance
group of interbreeding species
- Leather back Turtles
- soft shell makes them flexible so they can go deep to get jellyfish
How is the gender of a turtle egg determined
by the temperature, higher temp its a female
a coatiy-raccoon type animal in hawii acts and functions the same as the the raccoons on the mainland
why do locals eat turtle eggs
Savanna Regional Ecology Lab
highly protected area because of nuclear reactors, alligators behavior studied there
how heat affects behavior in turtles, fish and lizards
Mammals and birds have insulation, heat comes from within
reptiles and fish get heat from external sources, body temp changes with environment
how do penguins die from oil spills?
hypothermia because oil coats their insulational coat
When a endotherm is able to maintain the same temperature
Another name for an ectotherm
what does SREL stand for and where is it?
- Savanna regional ecology lab
- between the south Carolina and Georgia boarder
water that is a mix of fresh and salt with the changing tides
how do penguins die from hypothermia?
oil coats their feathers which destroys their natural ability to waterproof and insulate
a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
two largest factors that control the distribution of biota
6 abiotic forces
- Soil nutrients
- light availability
Abiotic conditions combine to determine ________ and __________, which affect distribution/abundance of biota
weather and climate
Interactions between __________ and the _______________ limit the distribution of species
organisms and the environment
- diamondback terrapin
- lives in brackish waters in esterary
how do diamondback terrapins adapt to brackish water
- skin is impermeable
- have lachrymal salt glands
- drink the layer of fresh water on top and open their mouths to collect rain water
verticle walls deep in the ocean water
- * turtles can't find land to lay eggs
- map turtle
- found on Niagara river
- live under ice
study of the past and present distribution of species
what limits the distribution of species?
- biotic interactions
- abiotic factors
distribution limit: area inaccessible or not selected by species
distribution limit: predators, competitors, food limitation, parasites, disease
distribution limit: temperature, light, water, salinity, pH, nutrients, etc
- abiotic factors
- physical/chemical factors
why is the polar vortex dropping so low?
Alaska is getting warmer, pushing down the cold air
how does the polar ice cap melting effect ocean levels?
it doesn't because it's floating, so volume would be the same
the 6 biogeographic realms
what biogeographic realm is America in?
what biogeographic realm is south America?
what biogeographic realm is Africa?
what biogeographic realm is Europe and beyond?
what biogeographic realm is India
what kind of experiments help define the limits of the potential range a species can survive in?
whats the most limiting reason a species doesn't survive a transplant experiment?
2 types of plant dispersal
plant seeds dispersed by wind or current, will be a lot of seeds
plant seeds dispersed by other animals, larger seeds.
- better because other species are living in area that seeds are deposited
what type of parasites are fleas?
what kind of parasites are worms?
factors controlling the distribution of biota
bell curve graph
minimum and maximum area are too intense for animals
Shelfords Law of Tolerance
factors controlling the distribution of biota
compared seaweed cover and presence of sea urchin and limpet
- Fletcher's Experiment
- Sear urchins the cause
5 factors that control the distribution of biota
experiments where theres only observation in a natural environment
experiments where you change something
Good things to have for manipulative experiments
- *treatment group
- * controlled group/placebo
- *lots of data
the average weather patterns for an area over a long period of time 30< years
what is climate determined by?
average precipitation and average temperature
what are precipitation and temperature influenced by?
latitude, altitude and ocean currents
what do latitude, altitude and ocean currents affect?
- where organisms live
- the vegetation patterns
- what is available to eat, ect
degrees from the equator 0 to 90 degrees
degrees from international time zone, 0 to 180
distance from ocean level
between longitude, latitude and altitude, which has the biggest effect on temperature?
latitude, further from the equator, lower the temp goes
which way does the gulf stream turn?
percentage of Oxygen in the atmosphere
why is it harder to breath at a high altitude?
the two gas laws
Boyles and Charles
gas law that deals with pressure and volume
law that deals with temperature and volume
a habitat that is of small or limited extent and which differs in character from some surrounding more extensive habitat.
which equatorial line is north and which is south?
- North-Tropic of Cancer 23.3 N
- South-Tropic of Capricorn 23.3 S
how far below sea level is death valley
why is moisture air lighter?
- dry air=N2=28g
- moist air-H2O=18g
when something expands and gives off heat
- ad abiotic cooling
- bike tire
what are the 4 ways to transfer heat
heating of water is what type of heat transfer?
how do snakes transfer heat?
what type of heat transfer is a dog's panting referred to as?
global convection cell circulation patterns
around what latitude is going to be dry?
- 30 degree
- and both the poles
what degree are the wet zones in?
60 degrees latitude
the type of land on the polar caps
type of land at 60 degrees latitude
Evergreen coniferous forest
large, fairly recognizable vegetation communities characterized by organism adaptations to that environment
Hadley cells + biomes =
type of land between 30 and 60 degrees latitude
Temperate deciduous forest and grassland
type of land at 30 degree
type of land between 0 and 30 degree latitude
tropical deciduous forest
type of land at equator
tropical rain forest
cycle of moist air
rises, cools and releases as rain
explain how sea and land breezes work for daytime
- sun heats land and water
- land absorbs more quickly
- hot land air rises=low pressure on land
- water: thermal inertia: cold air=higher surface pressure
- wind blows from higher to lower to compensate
explain sea and land breeze at night
- water air retains heat from sun,(thermal inertia) warmer then land at night
- land is cool=higher pressure
- wind blows =high to low pressure
the degree of slowness with which the temperature of a body approaches that of its surroundings and which is dependent upon its absorptivity, its specific heat, its thermal conductivity, its dimensions, and other factors
the way animals gain heat through conduction
gain heat from touching pavement ect
the way animals gain heat from sun, basking
the motion of a motile organism or cell in response to the force of gravity. Turtles to ocean
locomotory movement that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light
how do freshly hatched turtles find their way to the ocean?
geotaxis and phototaxis
why is it colder on the east side of the rockies?
- Rain shadow effect and slope aspect
- clouds come from oceans, rains only on the west side
- less moisture = colder air
why does the moss grow on the north side of mountains and trees?
- North facing slope
- less sunlight
- more moist
example of species transplants-invasive
zebra muscles from the caspien sea into the great lakes
organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution
zebra muscles, clams, oysters, mussels
smallest unit of a habitat that is occupied by an organism
can also be the role the organism plays in the community of organisms found in the habitat
a few reasons transplant species do well in ecological niches
- no competition/predators
- population explosion
how did zebra muscles get here in terms of boats and how do they continue to get transplanted?
- caspien sea boats intake water(aquarium), when they get to the great lakes, dump out water/aquarium
- personal boats intake H2O to cool engine, boat relocates and dumps out water
5 abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms
- rocks and soil
2 examples of species that select habitat based on behavior
- sea turtles feed in one place, rest in another
- map turtles stay in one spot for summer, females dispersed to different areas for the fall
reptiles version of hibernating
burmating, very minimal activity
how does wind effect trees?
what is sprig equinox?
- its where theres an equal amount of sunlight on earth hence equator
- sunlight directly overhead
equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts towards sun; all regions on earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 of darkness
September and March equinox
northern hemisphere tilts toward sun; summer begins in northern hemisphere; winter begins in the southern
Northern hemisphere tilts away from sun; winter begins north, summer in the southern
furthest points on the earth the sun directly points at
Cancer and Capricorn equators
reasons why its warmer at the equator
- Wind: circulation is removing pressure
- Less atmosphere to go through, north and south the sun has to go though atmosphere at an angle
explain how the earths angles dictate the seasons
- the tilt of the earth determines how much energy from the sun
- earth is actually further away from the sun in the summer
at what temperature is H2O most dense?
4 degrees, lower it starts forming cystal lattice, expands, higher temp=more volume
in what seasons is lakes isothermal?
spring and autumn
in water seasons is water in a lake thermocline?
winter and summer
the temperature of lakes in the winter and summer
- thermocline-summer: warm(top) to cold(bottom)
- winter: Cold(top) to warm (bottom)
when a volume of fluid is heated, expands, less dense, and more buoyant than surrounding fluid
things convection cells are responsible for:
- chinook winds-warming wind from ocean-mountain range effects
- thermocline of water in the summer
lady who started the environmental movement, what book did she write?
- Racheal Carlson
- Silent Spring
why are there dead fish on the shore in the morning?
they need O2, since no sunlight at night, plants don't photosynthesize=less O2
when does H2O hold the most O2?
when it's cold
principle that states that humans need to be concerned with how their actions affect the environment
example of precautionary principle not being used in the US
BPA-made for menopause, used for plastic
temperature range for biological life
-20 Celsius to 100 Celsius
organisms that are adapted to living at high temperatures
organisms that are adapted to extremely cold temperatures
term for animals that are active at dawn and dusk
How did Rachel Carlson figure out there was an issue with humans affecting the environment
chemicals on grass, bugs ingested, birds ate bugs and died
Chemicals going up the food chain
example of why DTT isn't used anymore for pesticide
eagles accumulate it in system, it disrupts Ca2+ for egg shell, easily broken eggs
what trees are being pushed further north at a decreasing rate?
Beach trees, will die out
surrounding land, where a natural micro-habitat exists amidst a larger differing ecosystem