Ecology exam I set 1

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  1. What is ecology?
    study of distribution and abundance of organisms
  2. biology vs ecology
    interactions in environment
  3. non-living term and examples
    • Abiotic
    • time
    • H2O
    • temp
  4. Living term and examples
    • Biotic
    • Living
    • competition
    • disease
    • starvation
  5. what is easier to quantify, abiotic or biotic?
    abiotic because
  6. who were the 1st ecologist?
    • hunters & gathers
    • -where to go for food
    • distribution and abundance
  7. population
    group of interbreeding species
  8. Ecological hierarchy
    • Biosphere
    • Ecosystem
    • Community
    • Population
    • Individual
  9. Image Upload 1
    • Leather back Turtles
    • soft shell makes them flexible so they can go deep to get jellyfish
  10. How is the gender of a turtle egg determined
    by the temperature, higher temp its a female
  11. a coatiy-raccoon type animal in hawii acts and functions the same as the the raccoons on the mainland
    ecological equivalent
  12. why do locals eat turtle eggs
  13. Savanna Regional Ecology Lab
    highly protected area because of nuclear reactors, alligators behavior studied there
  14. how heat affects behavior in turtles, fish and lizards
    thermal effluent
  15. Mammals and birds have insulation, heat comes from within
  16. reptiles and fish get heat from external sources, body temp changes with environment
  17. how do penguins die from oil spills?
    hypothermia because oil coats their insulational coat
  18. When a endotherm is able to maintain the same temperature
  19. Another name for an ectotherm
  20. what does SREL stand for and where is it?
    • Savanna regional ecology lab
    • between the south Carolina and Georgia boarder
  21. water that is a mix of fresh and salt with the changing tides
    brackish water
  22. how do penguins die from hypothermia?
    oil coats their feathers which destroys their natural ability to waterproof and insulate
  23. a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
    An estuary
  24. two largest factors that control the distribution of biota
    • moisture
    • temperature
  25. 6 abiotic forces
    • Moisture
    • Soil nutrients
    • temperature
    • light availability
    • wind
    • chemistry
  26. Abiotic conditions combine to determine ________ and __________, which affect distribution/abundance of biota
    weather and climate
  27. Interactions between __________ and the _______________ limit the distribution of species
    organisms and the environment
  28. Image Upload 2
    • diamondback terrapin
    • lives in brackish waters in esterary
  29. how do diamondback terrapins adapt to brackish water
    • skin is impermeable
    • have  lachrymal salt glands
    • drink the layer of fresh water on top and open their mouths to collect rain water
  30. verticle walls deep in the ocean water
    • bulkheading
    • * turtles can't find land to lay eggs
  31. Image Upload 3
    • map turtle
    • softshell
    • clolaca
    • found on Niagara river
    • live under ice
  32. bimodal respiration
  33. study of the past and present distribution of species
  34. what limits the distribution of species?
    • dispersal
    • biotic interactions
    • abiotic factors
  35. distribution limit: area inaccessible or not selected by species
  36. distribution limit: predators, competitors, food limitation, parasites, disease
    biotic interactions
  37. distribution limit: temperature, light, water, salinity, pH, nutrients, etc
    • abiotic factors
    • physical/chemical factors
  38. why is the polar vortex dropping so low?
    Alaska is getting warmer, pushing down the cold air
  39. how does the polar ice cap melting effect ocean levels?
    it doesn't because it's floating, so volume would be the same
  40. the 6 biogeographic realms
    • Nearctic
    • Neotropical
    • Australian
    • Ethiopian
    • Oriental
    • Palearctic
  41. what biogeographic realm is America in?
  42. what biogeographic realm is south America?
  43. what biogeographic realm is Africa?
  44. what biogeographic realm is Europe and beyond?
  45. what biogeographic realm is India
  46. what kind of experiments help define the limits of the potential range a species can survive in?
    transplant experiments
  47. whats the most limiting reason a species doesn't survive a transplant experiment?
  48. 2 types of plant dispersal
    • passive
    • active
  49. plant seeds dispersed by wind or current, will be a lot of seeds
  50. plant seeds dispersed by other animals, larger seeds.
    • Active
    • better because other species are living in area that seeds are deposited
  51. what type of parasites are fleas?
  52. what kind of parasites are worms?
  53. factors controlling the distribution of biota
    bell curve graph
    minimum and maximum area are too intense for animals
    behavioral/physiological stress
    Shelfords Law of Tolerance
  54. factors controlling the distribution of biota
    compared seaweed cover and presence of sea urchin and limpet
    • Fletcher's Experiment
    • Sear urchins the cause
  55. 5 factors that control the distribution of biota
    • Predation
    • Competition
    • Parasitism
    • Disease
    • Symbioses
  56. experiments where theres only observation in a natural environment
  57. experiments where you change something
  58. Good things to have for manipulative experiments
    • *treatment group
    • * controlled group/placebo
    • *replication
    • *lots of data
  59. the average weather patterns for an area over a long period of time 30< years
  60. what is climate determined by?
    average precipitation and average temperature
  61. what are precipitation and temperature influenced by?
    latitude, altitude and ocean currents
  62. what do latitude, altitude and ocean currents affect?
    • where organisms live
    • the vegetation patterns
    • what is available to eat, ect
  63. degrees from the equator 0 to 90 degrees
  64. degrees from international time zone, 0 to 180
  65. distance from ocean level
  66. between longitude, latitude and altitude, which has the biggest effect on temperature?
    latitude, further from the equator, lower the temp goes
  67. which way does the gulf stream turn?
  68. percentage of Oxygen in the atmosphere
  69. why is it harder to breath at a high altitude?
    less pressure
  70. the two gas laws
    Boyles and Charles
  71. gas law that deals with pressure and volume
  72. law that deals with temperature and volume
  73. a habitat that is of small or limited extent and which differs in character from some surrounding more extensive habitat.
  74. which equatorial line is north and which is south?
    • North-Tropic of Cancer 23.3 N
    • South-Tropic of Capricorn 23.3 S
  75. Image Upload 4
  76. how far below sea level is death valley
    200 ft
  77. why is moisture air lighter?
    • dry air=N2=28g
    • moist air-H2O=18g
  78. when something expands and gives off heat
    • ad abiotic cooling
    • bike tire
  79. what are the 4 ways to transfer heat
    • radiation
    • convection
    • conduction
    • evaporation
  80. heating of water is what type of heat transfer?
  81. how do snakes transfer heat?
  82. what type of heat transfer is a dog's panting referred to as?
  83. global convection cell circulation patterns
    Hadley cells
  84. around what latitude is going to be dry?
    • 30 degree
    • and both the poles
  85. what degree are the wet zones in?
    60 degrees latitude
  86. the type of land on the polar caps
  87. type of land at 60 degrees latitude
    Evergreen coniferous forest
  88. large, fairly recognizable vegetation communities characterized by organism adaptations to that environment
  89. Hadley cells + biomes =
  90. type of land between 30 and 60 degrees latitude
    Temperate deciduous forest and grassland
  91. type of land at 30 degree
  92. type of land between 0 and 30 degree latitude
    tropical deciduous forest
  93. type of land at equator
    tropical rain forest
  94. cycle of moist air
    rises, cools and releases as rain
  95. explain how sea and land breezes work for daytime
    • sun heats land and water
    • land absorbs more quickly
    • hot land air rises=low pressure on land
    • water: thermal inertia: cold air=higher surface pressure
    • wind blows from higher to lower to compensate
  96. explain sea and land breeze at night
    • water air retains heat from sun,(thermal inertia) warmer then land at night
    • land is cool=higher pressure
    • wind blows =high to low pressure
  97. the degree of slowness with which the temperature of a body approaches that of its surroundings and which is dependent upon its absorptivity, its specific heat, its thermal conductivity, its dimensions, and other factors
    Thermal inertia
  98. the way animals gain heat through conduction
    gain heat from touching pavement ect
  99. the way animals gain heat from sun, basking
  100. the motion of a motile organism or cell in response to the force of gravity. Turtles to ocean
  101. locomotory movement that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light
  102. how do freshly hatched turtles find their way to the ocean?
    geotaxis and phototaxis
  103. why is it colder on the east side of the rockies?
    • Rain shadow effect and slope aspect
    • clouds come from oceans, rains only on the west side
    • less moisture = colder air
  104. why does the moss grow on the north side of mountains and trees?
    • North facing slope
    • less sunlight
    • more moist
    • cooler
  105. example of species transplants-invasive
    zebra muscles from the caspien sea into the great lakes
  106. organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution
    species transplants
  107. zebra muscles, clams, oysters, mussels
  108. smallest unit of a habitat that is occupied by an organism
    can also be the role the organism plays in the community of organisms found in the habitat
    ecological niche
  109. a few reasons transplant species do well in ecological niches
    • no competition/predators
    • population explosion
  110. how did zebra muscles get here in terms of boats and how do they continue to get transplanted?
    • caspien sea boats intake water(aquarium), when they get to the great lakes, dump out water/aquarium
    • personal boats intake H2O to cool engine, boat relocates and dumps out water
  111. 5 abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms
    • temperature
    • water
    • sunlight
    • wind
    • rocks and soil
  112. 2 examples of species that select habitat based on behavior
    • sea turtles feed in one place, rest in another
    • map turtles stay in one spot for summer, females dispersed to different areas for the fall
  113. reptiles version of hibernating
    burmating, very minimal activity
  114. how does wind effect trees?
    boundary layer
  115. what is sprig equinox?
    • its where theres an equal amount of sunlight on earth hence equator
    • sunlight directly overhead
  116. equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts towards sun; all regions on earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 of darkness
    September and March equinox
  117. northern hemisphere tilts toward sun; summer begins in northern hemisphere; winter begins in the southern
    June solstice
  118. Northern hemisphere tilts away from sun; winter begins north, summer in the southern
    December solstice
  119. furthest points on the earth the sun directly points at
    Cancer and Capricorn equators
  120. reasons why its warmer at the equator
    • Wind: circulation is removing pressure
    • Less atmosphere to go through, north and south the sun has to go though atmosphere at an angle
  121. explain how the earths angles dictate the seasons
    • the tilt of the earth determines how much energy from the sun
    • earth is actually further away from the sun in the summer
  122. at what temperature is H2O most dense?
    4 degrees, lower it starts forming cystal lattice, expands, higher temp=more volume
  123. in what seasons is lakes isothermal?
    spring and autumn
  124. in water seasons is water in a lake thermocline?
    winter and summer
  125. the temperature of lakes in the winter and summer
    • thermocline-summer: warm(top) to cold(bottom)
    • winter: Cold(top) to warm (bottom)
  126. when a volume of fluid is heated, expands, less dense, and more buoyant than surrounding fluid
    convection cells
  127. things convection cells are responsible for:
    • chinook winds-warming wind from ocean-mountain range effects
    • thermocline of water in the summer
  128. lady who started the environmental movement, what book did she write?
    • Racheal Carlson
    • Silent Spring
  129. why are there dead fish on the shore in the morning?
    they need O2, since no sunlight at night, plants don't photosynthesize=less O2
  130. when does H2O hold the most O2?
    when it's cold
  131. principle that states that humans need to be concerned with how their actions affect the environment
    Precautionary principle
  132. example of precautionary principle not being used in the US
    BPA-made for menopause, used for plastic
  133. temperature range for biological life
    -20 Celsius to 100 Celsius
  134. organisms that are adapted to living at high temperatures
  135. organisms that are adapted to extremely cold temperatures
  136. term for animals that are active at dawn and dusk
  137. How did Rachel Carlson figure out there was an issue with humans affecting the environment
    chemicals on grass, bugs ingested, birds ate bugs and died
  138. Chemicals going up the food chain
    Biological magnification
  139. example of why DTT isn't used anymore for pesticide
    eagles accumulate it in system, it disrupts Ca2+ for egg shell, easily broken eggs
  140. what trees are being pushed further north at a decreasing rate?
    Beach trees, will die out
  141. surrounding land, where a natural micro-habitat exists amidst a larger differing ecosystem
    Ecological island
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Ecology exam I set 1
1st exam first set
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