Ch. 32

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Author:
cep9654
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267637
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Ch. 32
Updated:
2014-03-24 20:49:24
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Animal Diversity
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Test 3
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  1. All animals have the ability to reproduce ___
    sexually
  2. provide a glimpse of one way in which gene expression is translated into the many different forms that animals exhibit. More complex this is, more complex organism is
    Hox gene
  3. The animal kingdom is said to be ____. It contains __ animal phyla.
    • Monophyletic
    • 35
  4. Animal Kingdom ancestor is most likely a colonial flagellated ____ similar to _____.
    • protist
    • Choanoflagellates
  5. The Cambrian Explosion occurred roughly __ mya
    520
  6. 4 (now 3) main morphological and developmental features used in classification of Animals:
    • Presence or absence of different tissue types
    • Type of Body Symmetry
    • Presence or absence of true body cavity (not since DNA advancement)
    • Patterns of embryonic development
  7. The tissue category of all animal division
    Metazoa
  8. The Metazoa is divided into: ___, ___
    • Parazoa
    • Eumetazoa
  9. on the side
    para
  10. true
    eu
  11. no specialized tissues or organs. An example would be a ___
    • Parazoa
    • Sponge (Porifera)
  12. More than one type of tissue and organs
    Eumetazoa
  13. The symmetry of eumetazoa can be either ___ or ___.
    • Radiata (radially symmetrical)
    • Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical)
  14. Bilateral animals have ___ and dorsal and ventral ends. This is composed of __ layers.
    • Cephalization
    • 3 germ
  15. Radial animals have __ and __ sides. This is composed of __ layers.
    • oral
    • aboral
    • 2 germ
  16. Cell layers develop during ___.
    Gastrulation
  17. Inner layer
    Endoderm (digestive system)
  18. outer layer
    ectoderm (skin and nervous)
  19. 3rd layer in bilateral animals. Forms muscles and most other organs
    Mesoderm
  20. organism whose body is completely lined with mesoderm
    • True Coelem
    • coelomates
  21. Coelom is not completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm
    • Pseudocoelom
    • pseudicoelomates
  22. lack a body cavity entirely
    Acoelomates
  23. Fluid filled body cavity can protect internal organs or be used as _____
    hydro-static skeleton
  24. Embryonic development 2 types:
    • Protostome
    • Deuterostome
  25. This has a spiral cleavage, cleavage determinate, and the blastopore becomes the mouth.
    protostome
  26. this has radial cleavage, cleavage is interdeterminate (pluripotent stem cells), and blastopore becomes anus
    deuterostome
  27. involved in pattern formation in early embryos
    Hox gene
  28. Changes in the hox gene expression controls body segment ____
    specialization
  29. Shifts in patterns of gene expression in the embryo along the ___ axis govern transition from one type of vertebra to another and short or long necks
    anteroposterior
  30. New molecular techniques classify animals by comparing similarities in ___ and ___
    • RNA
    • DNA
  31. The sequences of nucleotides in the gene that encodes RNA of the small ribosomal subunit (___). This changes very __ over time.
    • SSU rRNA
    • Slowly
  32. Metazoa is a monophyletic ___
    clade
  33. At the earliest stages of evolution, molecular phylogeny supports the split between __ and ___, and also among the __ and __. Most animals belong to the ___.
    • Parazoa
    • Eumetazoa
    • Radiata
    • Bilateria
    • Bilateria
  34. Echinoderms and chordates belong to a clade called the ___
    Deuterostomia
  35. __ and colleagues used SSU rRNA to analyze the taxonomic relationships of arthropods and other taxa
    Aguinaldo
  36. Monophyletic clade ___ contains arthropods and nematodes
    Ecdysozoa
  37. Bilateria are split up into __ and __.
    • Detuerostomia
    • Protostomia
  38. Protosomes are divided into __ and __
    • Lophotrochozoa
    • Ecdysozoa
  39. Lophotrochozoans are named from stems __ (feeding tentacle) and and __ larva
    • lophophore
    • trochophore
  40. Molecular data suggests that the presence or absence of a coelom or pseudocoelom may not be a ______
    useful way to classify animals

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