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__________ assumed control of artistic education, controlling style. It also established a hierarchy of genres with history painting at the top, determining prestige.
Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture
_______ was the first artist of the 1700s to fully explore the possibilities of pastel as a medium suited for an art of surface elegance and sensation
___________ Portrait of Gabrielle-Emili le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Chatelet
is one of a number of paintings by women artists of salonieres and other women
intellectuals, evidence of a tradition in which women often represented women.
____________ viewed the saloniere as a threat to the “natural” dominance of men, the salon as a “prison” in which men were subjected to the rule of women.
________ was a professional woman in the age of the amateur, and the first woman painter to challenge the masculine monopoly over history painting exercised by the Academicians.
___________ determination to execute large-scale historical works, despite no access to training from the nude model on which the conventions of history painting were based, is a mark of her ambition.
submitted several pastels and drew the first
unsubstantiated charges that her teacher had touched up her works. In response she invited prominent academicians to sit for her, stilling her critics and gaining access to politically powerful male painters.
___________ was industrious, beautiful, socially in demand, and the Queenʼs favorite painter.
Paintings in the later 1800s do not express a single “feminine” point of view. For
example, Bowkettʼs An Afternoon in the Nursery suggests that chaos results when
women are absorbed in their own pleasures rather than attending to the needs of
children, ______________ Feeding the Swans emphasizes the symmetry and order of
the well-run household.
The plight of middle-class women who were unmarried or otherwise forced to
support themselves is the subject of __________ Nameless and Friendless which depicts a young woman accompanied by a boy entering an art dealerʼs shop with a painting and a portfolio of prints or drawings.
Emily Mary Osbornʼs
_________ Horse Fair became one of the best known and loved of all nineteenth-century paintings. Her fame coincided with impassioned public debate about animal rights and animal abuse around the issue of vivisection.
_________ refused to be restricted to “feminine” subjects. She painted the world of war and soldiersʼ lives, a world which was understood to belong to men.
The most fully documented examples of early African-American story quilts are
those of ___________, a woman born into slavery in Georgia whose narratives
have sources in three types of stories drawn from oral tradition: local legends,
Biblical tales, and accounts of astronomical occurrences.
___________ is an exception among nineteenth-century American artists: a
married women from Ohio who depended on her art to support her thirteen children
and her husband.
Lilly Martin Spencer
____________ was one of the many Neoclassical sculptors who went to Rome in
search of good marble and skilled carvers, historical collections of classical
sculpture, and an inexpensive and congenial environment.
________________ modeled a portrait of Virginia Dare, from Richard Kakluytʼs writing
about Virginia Dare, the first white woman born in the New World.
___________ and ___________ had work that was powerfully connected with the human rights issues of their day, which often demanded a less allegorical and more naturalistic sculptural treatment.
Anne Whitney, Edmonia Lewis
__________________ imposing figure of Abraham Lincoln, unveiled in Statuary Hall
in the Capital in 1871, was enthusiastically received and the young sculptor became
an instant celebrity, though that praise was short-lived.
Vinnie Ream Hoxieʼs
________ of 1876 represented a milestone in
womenʼs struggles to achieve public visibility in American cultural life, and one tenth of the works of art in the United States section were by women.
The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition
_______ had been exhibiting for more than ten years when she joined the Impressionist group, her subjects evolved within the boundaries of her sex and class.
______, supported by husband Eugene and familyʼs wealth, painted subjects drawn from everyday life, using casual immediacy, straightforward, and feathery brushstrokes.
____________, not from a prosperous, cultured family, married an engraver who was jealous of her work an inhibited her development, and today is the least known of the women Impressionists.
________ organized the Society of Decorative Art of New York City, where she was in charge of textiles, embroidery, tapestry, and needlework.
___________ founded Rookwood School of Pottery Decoration, then hired William Watts Taylor to take over the administration and organization of the pottery.
Maria Longworth Nichols
Ladies Home Journal serialized six illustrations by ___________ which collectively outlined the facets of new womanhood.
Alice Barber Stephens