Ch-7 TCP-IP.txt

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Ch-7 TCP-IP.txt
2014-03-29 18:52:39
Networking TCP IP Aplus
Chapter 7 A+ study guide
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  1. The __ suite is the most popular network protocol in use today, thanks mostly to the rise of the Internet. While the protocol suite is named after two of its hardest-working protocols, __ and __, it actually contains dozens of protocols working together to help computers communicate with one another.
    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  2. __ dynamically assigns IP addresses and other IP configuration information to network clients. Configuring your network clients to receive their IP addresses from a __ server reduces network administration headaches.
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP
  3. __ is optimized to transfer files. This includes both uploading and downloading files from one host to another. __ is both a protocol and an application. Specifically, __ lets you copy files, list and manipulate directories, and view file contents. You can’t use it to remotely execute applications. Port 20 and 21
    File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  4. Its purpose is to resolve hostnames to IP addresses.
    Domain Name System (DNS)
  5. The most commonly used Process/Application layer protocol is __. It manages the communication between a web server and client and lets you connect to and view all of the content you enjoy on the Internet. Port 80.
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure HTTP
  6. To securely encrypt traffic between a web server and client. __ connections are secured using either Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) Port 443
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)
  7. __is a secure protocol designed to download email. Its current version is version 4, or __4. It’s becoming more and more common as the client-side email management protocol of choice, replacing the unsecure POP3. Most current email clients, such as Microsoft Outlook and Gmail, are configured to be able to use either __4 or POP3.
    Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
  8. __is a directory services protocol based on the X.500 standard. __ is designed to access information stored in an information directory typically known as an __ directory or __ database.
    The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
  9. __ has been the preferred protocol for downloading email. It’s being replaced by IMAP4 because IMAP4 includes security and more features than POP3. Port 110
    Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
  10. __is a Microsoft developed protocol. It’s used to provide shared access to files, printers, and other network resources. In a way, it functions a bit like FTP only with a few more options.
    Server Message Block (SMB)
  11. __is used when you need to transfer files over a secure, encrypted connection.
    Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
  12. __allows users to connect to remote computers and run programs on them. When you use __, you see the desktop of the computer you’ve logged in to on your screen. It’s like you’re really there, even though you’re not.
    Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
  13. __is the protocol most commonly used to send email messages. Because it’s designed to send only, it’s referred to as a push protocol. An email client locates its email server by querying the DNS server for a mail exchange (MX) record. After the server is located, is used to push the message to the email server, which will then process the message for delivery. Port 25
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  14. __gathers and manages network performance information. On your network, you might have several connectivity devices such as routers and switches. A management device called an __ server can be set up to collect data from these devices (called agents) and ensure that your network is operating properly. Although it’s mostly used to monitor connectivity devices, many other network devices are __.
    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  15. __can be used to set up a secure Telnet session for remote logins or for remotely executing programs and transferring files. Because it’s secure, it was originally designed to be a replacement for the unsecure telnet command.
    Secure Shell (SSH)
  16. __ is a terminal emulation protocol. Someone using __ can log into another machine and “see” the remote computer in a window on their screen. Although this vision is text only, the user can manage files on that remote machine just as if they were logged in locally. The problem with __ and other unsecure remote management interfaces is that the data they transmit, including passwords, is sent in plain text. Anyone eavesdropping on the line can intercept the packets and thus obtain usernames and passwords. Port 23
  17. At the Process/Application layer there are two alternatives within the TCP/IP suite: TCP and UDP.
    Host-to-Host Layer Protocols
  18. __ guarantees packet delivery through the use of a virtual circuit and data acknowledgements TCP is often referred to as connection oriented.
  19. Does not guarantees packet delivery, __ is connectionless, it does tend to be somewhat faster, but we’re talking about milliseconds.
  20. __ is responsible for delivering error messages. The ping utility utilizes __ to send and receive packets.
    Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  21. __ resolves logical IP addresses to physical MAC addresses built in to network cards.
    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  22. __ resolves MAC addresses to IP addresses.
    Reverse ARP (RARP)
  23. To communicate on a TCP/IP network, each device needs to have a unique IP address. Any device with an IP address is referred to as a __. This can include servers, workstations, printers, and routers. If you can assign it an IP address, it’s a __. As an administrator, you can assign the host’s IP configuration information manually, or you can have it automatically assigned by a DHCP server.
  24. Each __ is made up of two components: the network ID and the host ID. The network portion of the address always comes before the host portion. All host addresses on a network must be unique. On a routed network, all network addresses must be unique. Neither the network ID nor the host ID can be set to all 0s. A host ID portion of all 0s means “this network.”
    Neither the network ID nor the host ID can be set to all 1s. A host ID portion of all 1s means “all hosts on this network,” commonly known as a broadcast address.
    IP Address
  25. An __ address is a 32-bit hierarchical address that identifies a host on the network. It’s typically written in dotted-decimal notation, such as Each of the numbers in this example represents 8 bits of the address, also known as an octet.
  26. In order to communicate using TCP/IP, each computer is required to have an IP address and correct subnet mask. A third component, called a __, identifies the IP address of the device that will allow the host to connect outside of the local network. This is typically your router, and it’s required if you want to communicate with computers outside of your local network.
    Default Gateway
  27. __ networks are defined as those with the first bit set as 0 (decimal values from 0 to 127) and are designed for very large networks. The default network portion for Class A networks is the first 8 bits, leaving 24 bits for host identification. Because the network portion is only 8 bits long (and 0 and 127 are reserved), there are only 126 Class A network addresses available. The remaining 24 bits of the address allow each Class A network to hold as many as 16,777,214 hosts. Default subnet mask 127 for loopback.
    Class A Networks
  28. __ networks always have the first two bits set at 10 (decimal values from 128 to 191) and are designed for medium-sized networks. The default network portion for Class B networks is the first 16 bits, leaving 16 bits for host identification. This allows for 16,384 networks, each with as many as 65,534 hosts attached. Examples of Class B networks include the networks of Microsoft, ExxonMobil, and Purdue University. Class B networks are generally regarded as unavailable, but address-conservation techniques have made some of these addresses available from time to time over the years. Default Subnet mask
    Class B
  29. __ networks have the first three bits set at 110 (decimal values from 192 to 223) and are designed for smaller networks. The default network portion for __ networks is the first 24 bits, leaving 8 bits for host identification. This allows for 2,097,152 networks, but each network can have a maximum of only 254 hosts
    Class C
  30. A __ server can be configured to automatically provide IP configuration information to clients.
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  31. Default gateway (the “door” to the outside world)
    Subnet mask
  32. __ has one function on the network, and that is to resolve host names to IP addresses. Each __ server has a database where it stores hostname-to-IP-address pairs. If the __ server does not know the address of the host you are looking for, it has the ability to query other __ servers to help answer the request.
    Domain Name System (DNS)
  33. __ runs on your router and handles the translation of private, nonroutable IP addresses into public IP addresses. There are three ranges reserved for private, nonroutable IP addresses.
    Network Address Translation (NAT)
  34. __is a TCP/IP standard used to automatically configure IP-based hosts that are unable to reach a DHCP server. APIPA addresses are in the range with a subnet mask of If you see a computer that has an IP address beginning with 169.254, you know that it has configured itself. APIPA is also sometimes known as zero configuration networking or address auto-configuration.
    Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
  35. By definition, NAT is actually a one-to-one private-to-public IP address translation protocol. There is a type of NAT called NAT Overload, also known as __, which allows for many private IP addresses to use one public IP address on the Internet.
    Port Address Translation (PAT)
  36. Instead of a 32-bit address, it provides for 128-bit addresses. It’s backward compatible with and can run on the computer at the same time as IPv4, so networks can migrate to __ without a complete restructure.
  37. __ will be in one of three ranges:,, or
    Private IP addresses ranges