What are three optional parts of a bacteria structure?
Capsule, pili, and flagellum
What are the four things a bacteria structure has to have?
Ribosomes, chromosomes, plasma membrane, and cell wall
What process do chemosynthetic autotrophic eubacteria go through?
Nitrogen fixation (convert nitrogen gas into liquid/solid nitrogen to be used by plants)
What do chemosynthetic autotrophic eubacteria need to live?
sulfur and nitrogen
Give an example of a photosynthetic auto tropic eubacteria and where it can live
Cyanobacteria: ponds, streams, and moist places
What do photosynthetic autotrophic eubacteria contain?
Where are heterotrophic eubacteria found?
Everywhere; they can be free-living, parasites, or saprophytes (decomposers)
True or False: Photosynthetic autotrophic eubacteria live in light places
True or False: Eubacteria is prokaryotic
False, it is eukaryotic
Where are some places that you would find archaebacteria that likes to live in hot & acidic regions?
ocean vents and sulfur springs
Where are some places where you would find archaebacteria that likes to live in high salt concentrations?
Great Salt Lake and Dead Sea
Where are some places that you would find O2 free archaebacteria?
marshes, lake sediment, and digestive tracts
What do archaebacteria bacteria that live in O2 free environments produce?
What do you call archaebacteria?
What is a prokaryote?
unicellular, no membrane-bound organelles, most reproduce asexually through binary fission
What do you get to protect against viruses?
Vaccine (a weakened version of the virus so your body can build up an immunity to it)
retrovirus, infects white blood cells, the host may not appear sick but can transfer virus by bodily fluids, and then the white blood cell count is so low that the host cannot fight off secondary infections
What is a retrovirus?
RNA virus with complex replication
Briefly explain the lysogenic cycle
Virus injects nucleic acids into cell and then the viral DNA is integrated into the host DNA and is copied, but the HOST CELL IS NOT KILLED
Briefly explain the lytic cycle
Virus injects nucleic acids into cell and then the cell produces more of the virus from the nucleic acid and then the cell ruptures releasing the newly produced viruses
How is a virus replicated?
The virus injects nucleic acids or is phagocitized (engulfed) and then the virus takes over metabolism of the host cell to produce new viruses and then Lytic cycle or Lysongenic cycle
What part of the viral structure determines the shape (polyhedral, helical, spherical, T4, etc.) and is host specific?
DNA or RNA core changes quicker and is harder to kill?
What are parts of the viral structure?
Nucleic acid core, Capsid, and sometimes an Envelope