microbio drugs list (pre-midterm)

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marika
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267717
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microbio drugs list (pre-midterm)
Updated:
2014-04-03 19:51:27
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micro drugs toxin
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micro drugs and toxin
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  1. Amphotericin B
    • anti-fungal drug 
    • targets Ergosterol 
    • forms pores and causes the leakage of ions
    • NOT EFFECTIVE against Pneumocystic jivorecii --> no Ergosterol
  2. aflatoxin (toxin)
    • released by Aspergillus Flavus 
    • causes hepatocellular carinoma
  3. Mycetismus (mycotoxin)
    • amantia muschroom- dead cap mushroom
    • inhibits RNA polymerase II, specific for eukaryotes 
    • deadly
  4. Cycloserine
    • inhibits NAM and NAG precursor formation (D-alanine step) intracellularlly 
    • Gram positive and negative bacteria 
    • anti-biotic
  5. Bacitracin
    • antibiotic
    • inhibits recycle of carrier protein of NAM and NAG
  6. Rifampin (and streptomycin and ethambutol)
    • treatment for TB 
    • first line
  7. Para-aminosalicyclic acid, cycloserine, and fluoroquinolones
    • treatment for TB 
    • second line
  8. Isoniazid
    • treatment for TB 
    • first line 
    • inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid
  9. Erlotinib and Gefitinib (path)
    EGFR inhibitor that you give at KRAS mutation checking level for non-small cell carcinoma
  10. Pemetrexed (path)
    • treatment for adenocarcinoma and other NSCLC
    • they are more likely to respond to this drug than squamous cell carcinoma does.
  11. Bevacizmab (path)
    it contraindicates with patient with Squamous cell lung carcinoma --> leads to life threatening hemorrhage
  12. Crizotinib (path)
    • inhibits the active fusion protein of ALK-EML4 
    • (non-small cell carcinoma treatment)
  13. Interferon alpha
    • Immunomodulator 
    • active against many viral infection 
    • ie.  HAV, HCV, HBV, HPV, HSV, rhinovirus
  14. Imiquimod
    • immunomodulator (host immune system) 
    • Toll-like receptor ligand 
    • stimulates innate immune response to attack viral infection
  15. Saquinavir
    • anti-viral 
    • protease inhibitor 
    • blocks release of HIV viral particles
  16. Foscarnet, Nevirapine
    • non-nucleoside reverse trascriptase inhibitor 
    • binds to enzyme's allosteric avtivation pocket --> so NON-active binding site  
    • anti-viral treatment
  17. AZT (Azidothymidine)
    • nucleoside inhibitors for reverse transcriptase
    • HIV patient treatment
  18. Acyclovir & penciclovir
    • Guanosine nucleoside analog that lacks OH group; 
    • must undergo thymidine kinase activation by utilizing reverse transcriptase 
    • acyclovir-triphosphate terminates synthesis.
    • anti-viral 
    • HHV I and HHV II mechanism 

    CMV is resistnat to Acyclovir; no tymidine kinase! 
  19. Sofosbuvior
    • HVC/ hep C treatment 
    • uridine nucleotide analog 
    • inhibits RNA synthesis 
    • similar as acyclovir
  20. Declastavir
    • Hep C (HVC) treatment 
    • inhibits viral RNA synthesis and viral assembly and secretion 
    • inhibits NS5A
  21. PEGylated-IFNalpha
    • HVC (hep C) treatment 
    • PEG coats helps IFNalpha to last longer since it slows down drug metabolization 
    • Better than triple treatment 
    • Responds better in type 2 and 3
  22. Heptavax
    inactivated vaccine for Hep B
  23. recombivax
    vaccine made from recombined subunit of HBsAg for Hep B
  24. Vancomycin
    • indicated for penicillin resistant enterococcal infection
    • inhibits D-ala-Dala peptide formation in Gram Positive cocci bacteria
    • disrupts cell wall synthesis
  25. Zanamivar & Oseltamvir
    • inhibit neuraminidase for Anti-influenza 
    • virus binds to its own sialycacid and forms useless clump 
    • works on type A and B only
  26. Rivarbirin
    • neuleotide biosythesis and mutation
    • thymidine kinase (drug activation )
    • nucleoside inhibitor 
    • viral mRNA synthesis is inhibited by incorporating guanosine analog 
    • ie. hep C and RSV
  27. Tromandadine, enfvirtide
    • 3' fusion inhibitor 
    • inhibits penetration
  28. Amantadine & Rimantadine (tromandatine, and Arildone)
    • inhibit uncoating of influenza A only (amantadine and rimantadin) 
    • target M2 protein

    UNCOATING
  29. Nikkomycin- Z
    • chitin synthesis inhibitors 
    • anti-fungal 
    • competes with UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and inhibits chitin wall synthesis
  30. Ecchinocandines (ie. caspofungin)
    • anti-fungal 
    • inhibit Beta-Glucan Synthesis 
    • Blocks 1,3-Beta-D-glucan synthase 
    • works on aspergillus and candida but NOT on Cryptococcus neoformans

  31. Allyamines (ie. Terbinafine)
    • inhibit squalene expoxidase 
    • build up of Squalene 
    • anti-fungal 
    • increase permeability --> fungi dies
  32. Polynes (amphoteracine B)
    • anti-fungal 
    • binds to Ergosterol and makes pores
  33. Azoles (ie. Fluconazoles)
    • anti-fungal 
    • inhibit Lanosterol --> Ergosterol 
    • build up of Lanosterol
  34. Sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim
    • sulfamethoxazole --> inhibit Dihydropteroate synthase (PABA-->Dihydrofolic acid) 
    • Trimethoprim inhibits Dihydrofolate synthaes (Dihydrofolic acid -->tetrafolic acid; THF) 
    • Bacteria needs THF to grow 
    • example of Synergy!
  35. penicillin + Cephalosporin limitation
    • against mycoBateria and mycoplasma 
    • lack of cell wall nor waxy surface
  36. Nitroimidazole limitation
    • not affective against aerobes 
    • requires flavodoxin --> electron transfer proteins that's absent in aerobe
  37. Glycopeptides limitation
    • not effective against Gram -ve 
    • cant penetrate outer membrane since its too large
  38. Aminoglycosides limitation
    not effective against anaerobe since it depends on Oxydative phosphorylation
  39. Sptretogramin
    • anti-bacterial 
    • inhibit peptide bond formation 
    • 50 sub unit 
    • no elongation
  40. Licosamides
    • anti-bacterial 
    • binds to 50 sub units 
    • binds to A&P site
  41. Macrolides
    • inhibit transpeptidation and translocation on 50 sub unit
    • prevents polypeptide formation 
    • anti-bacterial
  42. Aminoglycosides
    • ie. streptomycin 
    • misleading of codon 
    • impairs proof leading activity 
    • binds to 30sub unit
  43. Tetracyclin
    • inhibit transfer of acetylated tRNA into A site on 30 subunit 
    • antibacterial
  44. Gancyclovir
    • Anti-herpes; CMV virus 
    • acyclic guanosine analog --> decreases
    • replication 
    • decreases virus shedding in patients
  45. indomethacin (path)
    • induce closure of PDA 
    • (maintaining the opening of PDA is by PGE)
  46. Beta-Lactam
    • antiobiotic family including penicillin 
    • inhibits transpeptidase (=penicillin binding protein)

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