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  1. where is the CR for an ap axial sacrum
    what is the angle of the tube
    • 1-2 superior to pubic symphysis
    • 15 deg cephalad
  2. when would we have to increase the cephalad angle to 20deg of the ap axial sacrum projection
    when the patient has a greater posterior curvature or tilt of the sacrum and pelvis
  3. how would you perform the ap axial sacrum if the patient could not lie on their back
    you would position the patient prone and angle the tube 15 deg caudal
  4. the xipohid process is at the level of ___
  5. lower coastal margin is at the level of ____
    l2 -l3
  6. the iliac crests are at the level of _____
  7. the ASIS is at the level of ____
    the symphysis pubis is at the same level of -___
    • s1-s2
    • greater trochanter
  8. routines for sacrum and coccyx
    routine for SI joint
    • ap axial sacrum
    • ap axial coccyx
    • lat sacrum and coccyx

    • ap axial
    • posterior obliques
  9. for an ap lumbar spine which size casette can you use
    where would u center for each
    • 14x17 cr at crests
    • 10x12 cr at 1.5 in above crests at l3 (area of lower coastal margin)
  10. where is the CR for an ap axial sacrum and tube angle
    we must ensure no rotation of ____?
    • 2in above pubis symphysis
    • 15 cephalad
    • pelvis
  11. what is the CR and tube angle of an ap axial coccyx
    • 10 degree caudad angle
    • 2 in above pubic symphysis (at leve of greater trochanter
  12. if the patient could not lie on their back for a normal ap coccyx how should we compensate
    lie patient on their stomach angle tube 10 cephalald and center 2 in above pubis symphysis
  13. how do we position the patient for a lateral sacrum and coccyx
    where is the CR
    what must be put behind patient to reduce scatter
    • patient is on side with head and pillow and knees flexxed
    • 3-4in post to ASIS center sacrum in middle
    • lead apron
  14. when doing lateral projections of the spine lumbar spine lateral sacrum, coccyx and spine what must we consider (2 things)
    what is the position of the legs in these lateral recumbent positions
    • must consider excess scatter b/c of thick body part to compensate close collimation and place a lead mat behind patient
    • legs and knees are flexxed
  15. we must ensure no rotation of what two strcutures when radiographing lumbar later spines
    no rotation of thorax and pelvis
  16. what two bones can be taken in a single xray
    sacrum and coccyx in the lateral position
  17. where is the cr for a lateral coccyx position
    what is the difference in positioning with a lateral sacrum
    • align the long axis of coccyx with cr table/IR
    • CR 3-4in posterior to 2 in distal to ASIS
    • there is no distal length only posterior from ASIS 3-4in
  18. what is the breathing for sacrum coccyx
    suspend respiration
  19. the lateral sacrum requires what change in tech factors
    lower kv and mas
  20. where is the CR and tube angle (male and female) for an ap axial projection SI joint

    • angle Cr 30-35 cephalad (male 30deg
    • female 35deg)
    • Cr at midline 2in below ASIS
    • hold ya breath
  21. if the patient cannot assume the position for ap SI joint what is the alternative
    position the patient prone 30-35 caudad angle and slightly above iliac crest
  22. where is the CR for an LPO or RPO SI joint and degree of obliquity
    LPO is for what SI joint
    RPO is for what SI joint
    • CR per to IR 1 in medial to upside ASIS
    • obliquity: 25-30 deg with side of interest elevated
    • right upside SI joint
    • left upside SI joint
  23. bones of the spinal column are called
    the spinal cord is enclosed in the _____
    • vertbrae
    • spinal canal
  24. the spinal canal ends and starts where
    the spinal cord begins where and ends where
    the region where the spinal cord ends is called the
    • starts base of the skull and ends at distal sacrum
    • starts a medulla oblongata and ends at first lumbar vertebrae
    • conus medullaris
  25. what positions the lower lumbar spine require a suspension of respiration
    • ap axial sacrum ap axial coccyx
    • lat sacrum and coccyx
    • ap axial si joints si joints oblique rpo and lpo
  26. when doing the the obliques for the si joints what is the anatomy in focus
    • if its an lpo focus is on upside (rt SI joint)
    • if its an rpo focus is on upside (lt joint)
  27. the apex of the sacrum is located where
    at the bottom of the sacral bone
  28. how is the si joint made
    by the auricular surface and articulation of the ilium to form si joint
  29. ASIS
    iliac crests
    lower costal margin
    greter trocs
    • s1-s2
    • l4-l5
    • l2-l3
    • pub symphysis
  30. sternal angle
    jug notch
    middle of chest
    xiphoid process
    • t4-t5
    • t3-t4
    • t7
    • t9-t10
  31. gonion
    mastoid tips
    vertebral prominens
    thyroid cartilage
    • c3
    • c1
    • c7
    • c4-c5
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