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Mendel's First Law of Segregation
- A sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited character bc allele pairs separate (segregate) from each other during the production of gametes.
- Also explains the 3:1 ratio in the F2 generation.
Mendel's Second law of Independent Assortment
Mendel suggested that the inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another.
And that the dyhybrid cross is the equivalent to two monohybrid crosses.
9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio
in the 19th century he used garden peas and began the field of genetics.
- "the blending theory" the idea that hereditary materials mix in forming offspring.
- later rejected bc it did not explain how traits that disappear in one generation can reappear in later generations.
rejected pangenesis and argued that instead of particles, potential to produce the traits was inherited.
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
scientific study of heredity
- Carry all DNA
- They do not blend, they segregate
A heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as a flower color.
Each variant for a character, such as purple or white flowers.
Alternative versions of genes that account for variations in inherited characters.
Genotype that has identical alleles (PP)
Genotype that has two different alleles (Pp)
Determines the organisms appearance if the alleles of an inherited pair differ.
There is no noticeable effect on the organisms appearance if the alleles of an inherited pair differ.
the appearance or expression of a trait.
The genetic makeup of a trait.
shows the four possible combinations of alleles that could occur when these gametes combine.
The specific location of a gene along a chromosome.
- A mating of parental varieties that differ in two characters.
- ie: seed color and shape
- one character
- ie: purple vs white
- the mating between an individual of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
- Mendel used this to verify that he had true breeding genotypes.
- shows the inheritance of a trait in a family through multiple generations.
- demonstrates dominant or recessive inheritance and can be used to deduce genotypes of family members.
- two recessive alleles are needed to show disease.
- heterozygous parents are carriers of the disease causing allele.
- the probability of inheritance increases with inbreeding, mating between close relatives.
- One dominant allele is needed to show disease.
- dominant lethal alleles are usually eliminated from the population.
- the most common fatal genetic disease in the US.
- it results in excessive thick mucus secretions.
- the allele is recessive and chromosome #7 is in charge of it.
- 1:20 are carriers
- 1:2500 are child born
What determines the sex of a baby?
- designated X and Y sex chromosomes
- males have XY
- Females have XX
Human sex linked disorders
- a male receiving a single X linked recessive allele from his mother will have the disorder.
- a female must receive the allele from both parents to be affected.
- monomer of a nucleic acid
- composed of a nitrogenous base, five carbon sugar, and phosphate group.
DNA nucleotide nitrogen containing bases?
- Adenine (A)
- Thymine (T)
- Guanine (G)
Difference bw DNA and RNA
- Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid: Double Helix, ATCG, Genes
- Ribonucleic Acid: single strand, AUCG, carry genes to make protein, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA in cytoplasm
- The synthesis of RNA under the direction of RNA.
- "copy" everything from DNA to RNA in nucleus
- The synthesis of proteins under the direction of RNA.
- RNA to Protein in cytoplasm in the ribosome
- 60 plus 1 AUG codes for methionine and start of transcription.
- 3 "stop" codons signal the end of translation. (UAA, UAG, UGA)
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
- carries all 64 codes
- prokaryotes has no nucleus
- eukaryotes exits in nucleus to cytoplasm and has introns and exons.