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What are Research Methods?
A set of tools and procedures
What do research methods allow us to do?
- -apply good sense to gather information
- -learn more about psychology
- -summarise and quantify what we have found
- -communicate discoveries to others
To better discover personality, what sources of data can be used?
- Self-Report Data
- Life Data (outcome data)
- Informant-Report Data
- Behavioural Data
What is Self-Report Data?
- -AKA. S Data
- Typically questionnaires and interviews
- eg. how do they act, what emotions do they experience, what are their thoughts and motives?
What are the advantages of S Data?
- -Best expert; including access to thoughts and feelings
- -Casual force; knowing your own motives
- -Simple and Easy
What are the disadvantages of S Data?
- -data isn't being reported accurately
- -data can't be reported accurately
- -too simple and too easy
What is Informant-Report Data?
- Data collected via intel from parents, partners, friends, teachers etc...
- How people are seen by others is an important part of who they are
What are the advantages of Informant-reports?
- -Large amount of information
- -Real-world basis
- -Common sense
- -Causal force; expectancy effects, behavioural confirmation, self-fulfilling prophecy
What are the disadvantages of Informant-reports?
- -Limited amount of information
- -Bias (eg. cultural expectations, sibling, relationship)
Define Life (Outcome) Data
–Archival information from historical records (e.g., police records, marriage & divorce records, school records, sales records)
What are the advantages of Life (Outcome) Data?
- - Real-life relevance (probably)
- - Psychological relevance
What are the disadvantages of Life (Outcome) Data?
- - it is multi-determined (not determined for research purposes)
- -relevant data may not be available
- -assurance of record accuracy
- -impact of social trends
What is Behavioural Data? Define the two types
- -AKA. B data
- -Natural B data; diaries, experience sampling methods, video/audio records.
- -Laboratory B data; experiments, personality tests, physiological measures
What are the advantages of B data?
- -Range of contexts
- -Objective and quantifiable
Disadvantages of B data?
Explain the uncertainty principle
The world is uncertain, imperfect and ambiguous - making science exciting
What is the triangulation of data?
Mixing different types of data to strengthen findings: B, L, I, S (Behavioural, Life, Informant-report, Self-report)