Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology
2015-06-14 03:18:01
Medical Terminology

Medical terms
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  1. An-hedon-ia
    inability to find enjoyment in things once enjoyable.
  2. A-kithis-ia
    Inability to remain motionless (inner restlessness that manifests with uncontroable body movement)
  3. ca-chec-tic
    general ill health with emaciation, usually occurring in association with cancer or a chronic infectious disease.
  4. introjection
    An ego defense mechanism whereby an individual unconsciously indentifies with another person or with some object. the individual assumes the supposed feelings and or characteristics of the other personality or object.
  5. projection
    the act of transferring ones own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else.
  6. regression
    a response to stress in which the individual reverts to an earlier level of development.
  7. Sublimation
    rechanneling or redirecting ones unacceptable impulses and drives into constructive activities.
  8. repression
    is an involuntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from ones conscious mind.
  9. Suppression
    is the voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from ones mind
  10. affect
    observable evidence of a persons feelings or emotions.
  11. Cataplexy
    A sudden loss of muscle tone in which the individuals head may drop/ haw may sag. Individual may collapse or fall to the ground.
  12. Cyclothymic disorder
    chronic mood disorder characterized by numerous periods of mood swings from depression to happiness. ( at least 2 years_)
  13. delirium
    state of frenzied excitement or wild enthusiasm
  14. Delirium tremens (DT)
    acute and sometimes fatal psychotic reaction caused by cessation of excessive intake of alcoholic beverages over a long period of time.
  15. Displacement
    the process of transferring a feeling or emotion from the original idea or object to a substitute idea or object.
  16. -phoria
    emotional state
  17. dissociation
    unconscious defense mechanism by which an idea, thought, emotion, or other mental process is separated from the consciousness.
  18. exhibitionism
    a sexual disorder involving the exposure of ones genitals to a stranger.
  19. frotteurism
    sexual disorder in which the person gains sexual stimulation or excitement by rubbing against a nonconsenting person.
  20. malingering
    a willful and deliberate faking of symptoms of a disease or injury to gain some consciously desired end.
  21. neurosis
    a psychological or behavioral disorder in which anxiety is the primary characteristic; thought to be related to unresolved conflicts.
  22. psychotropic
    any substance capable of affecting the mind, emotions and behavior; drugs used in the treatment of mental illness.
  23. psychosomatic
    pertaining to the expression of an emotional conflict through physical symptoms.
  24. Phren-
    mind; also refers to the diaphram
  25. schiz/o-
  26. schizophrenia
    any of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortion of reality, disturbances of language and communication-fragmentation of thought, perception and emotional reaction
  27. senile dementia
    an organic mental disorder-related to atrophy of the brain with no evidence of cerebrovascular disease.
  28. somatoform disorders
    any group of neurotic disorders characterized by symptoms suggesting physical illness or disease when there is no demonstrable organic cause.
  29. Psychosomatic
    pertaining to the expression of an emotional conflict through physical symptoms.
  30. repression
    an involuntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from ones conscious mind.
  31. Sublimation
    rechanneling or redirecting ones unacceptable impulses and drives into constructive activities.
  32. Suppression
    the voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from ones mind.
  33. amnestic disorder
    amnesia-short term or long term disorders.
  34. Paranoid schizophrenia
    condition characterized by the individual being overly suspicious of others and having hallucinations and delusions.
  35. bipolar disorder (manic-depressive)
    a psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression.
  36. dissociative fugue
    a disorder in which the individual separates from a past life and associates or wanders away for a period of time and returns with no recollection of the disappearance.
  37. frotteurism
    is a sexual disorder in which the person gains sexual stimulation or excitement by rubbing against a nonconsenting person.
  38. schizoid personality disorder
    characterized by the inability to form social relationships the individual may appear as emotional cold or indifferent.
  39. perseverate
    repeat or prolong
  40. -static
    stopping or controlling
  41. bucc/o-
  42. idiosyncrasy
    an unusual, inappropriate response to a drug.
  43. parenteral medication
    any route of administration not involving the gastrointestinal tract.
  44. pharmacodynamics
    the study of how drugs interact in the human body
  45. Subcutaneous medication
    medication injected into the subcutaneous layer, or fatty tissue of the dermis
  46. Sub-
  47. lingu/o
  48. -al
    pertaining to
  49. alges/o
    sensitivity to pain
  50. an-
  51. cutane/o
  52. esthesi/o
    feeling, sensation
  53. cumulation
    occurs when a drug is not completely excreted from the body before another dose is given.
  54. 6 R's of medication administration
    • Right patient
    • Right drug
    • Right route
    • Right dose
    • Right time
    • Right documentation
  55. intra-
  56. intradermal
    small amount of medication is injected just beneath the epidermis
  57. fluorouracil (adrucil)
    methotrexate (rheumatrex)
    antineoplastic prevent the growth of cancerous cells.
  58. miconazole (monistat)
    fluconazole (diflucan)
    clotrimazole ( gyne-lotrimin)
    antifungal destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
  59. dextromethorphan
    (benylin DM, robitussin, vicks
    pseudoephedrine hydrocholride and guaifenesin (novahistex expectorant with decongestant)
  60. chlorpromazine (thorazine)
    meclizine hydrochloride (bonine, dramamine II, antivert)
  61. vasopressin
    • vaso contrictive¬†
    • anti diuretic
  62. diphenhydramine hydrochloride
    cetirizine (zyrtec)
  63. aminophylline- Am-I-Noph-yl-line
    quibron-1 sr
  64. extrapyramidal syndrome
    Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs), such as akathisia, dystonia, psuedoparkinsonism, and dyskinesia, are drug-induced side effects that can be problematic for persons who receive antipsychotic medications (APMs) or other dopamine-blocking agents.
  65. metmucil (psyllium hydrophilic muciloid
    bisacodyl (dulcolax)
  66. dantrolene sodium (dantrium)
    carisoprodol (soma)
    cyclobenzaprine-hydrochloride (flexeril)
    skeletal muscle relaxant
  67. metoprolol ( lopressor)
    beta blockers
  68. amlodipine (norvasc
    bepridil hydrochloride (vascor)
    calcium channel blocker
  69. pentobarbital (nembutal)
    secobarbital sodium
  70. phenobarbital (nembutal)
    diazepam (valium)
    Flurazepam hydrochloride (dalmane)
  71. acyclovir (zovirax)
    vidarabine (vira-A)
  72. nabumetone (relafen)
    naproxen sodium (anaprox, Aleve)
  73. amoxycillin (amoxil, polymox)
    doxycycline hyclate (vibramycin)
    anti-infective/ anti-biotic
  74. nadolol (corgard_
    Prazosin (minipress)
    diltiazem hydrchloride (cardizem)
    anti hypertensive
  75. DSM-IV-TR multiaxial classification system

    Axis 1?
    axis 1-Major mental disorder (developmental and learning disorders/ disabilities
  76. DSM-IV-TR multiaxial classification system
    Axis 2?
    • Peronality disorders
    • mental retardation
  77. DSM-IV-TR multiaxial classification system
    general medical conditions
  78. DSM-IV-TR multiaxial classification system
    global assessment of functioning.
  79. hospital formulary
    reference of listing of all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy
  80. schedule 1 drugs
    not considered to be legitimate for medical use in the USA. (research only)
  81. schedule 2
    have accepted medical use but high potential for abuse or addiction-ordered by written prescription cannot be refilled.
  82. schedule 3 drugs
    moderate potential for abuse or addiction-can be refilled no more than five times in a six month period.
  83. schedule 4 drugs
    less potential for abuse or adiction -refilled up to five times over a six month period.
  84. schedule 5 drugs
    small potential for abuse or addiction-no limit to refill-some can may not need a Rx.
  85. virulence
    how contagious or infections a pathogen is also its ability to cause disease.
  86. TNM Oncology staging system
    • T (0-4) Tumor size (primary site)
    • N (0-3) lymphnode involvement
    • M (0-3) metastasis
  87. What is the most common malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue?
    basal cell carcinoma
  88. what are the most common cancers?
    Breast cancer and prostate cancer; most deadly is lung cancer.
  89. x-rays that possess the avility to kill cells/ retard their growth
    ionizing radiation
  90. Sarcomas?
    malignant neoplasm of connective and supportive tissue.
  91. carcinomas?
    malignant neoplasm of epithelium
  92. -plasm
    living substance
  93. pleuritis (pleurisy)
    inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura.
  94. pulmonary embolism
    obstruction of pulmonary artery by a thrombus
  95. anthracosis
    carbon deposits in the lungs black lung disease.
  96. trichotillomania
    pulling of ones own hair.
  97. Rales
    lower airway bronchi contain secretion
  98. Emphyema
    pus in a body cavity
  99. hemoptysis
    coughing of blood
  100. hypercapnia
    increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
  101. apnea
    cessation of breathing (temporary)
  102. ABG
    arteriol blood gas(es)
  103. IPPB
    intermittent positive pressure breathing
  104. URI
    upper respiratory infection
  105. Epithelial
    outer skin and lines internal organs
  106. Ventral
    front or pertaining to belly
  107. histology
    study of cells (tissue)
  108. chromosomes contrain
  109. aplasia
    developmental failure resulting in absence of organ or tissue.
  110. dysplasia
    abnormal or disordered formation of tissues or organs.
  111. hyperplasia
    increase or excessive formation in the number of cells of a body part
  112. neoplasia
    a new and abnormal development of cells may or may not be malignant
  113. suffix-rrhexis
  114. suffix-ole, ula, and ule
    small or little
  115. suffix-tripsy
    to crush or break up
  116. lithiasis
    formation or presence of stones
  117. -cele
  118. suffix-clasis
    crushing or breaking up
  119. suffix-algia; -dynia
  120. melan/o-
  121. leuk/o
  122. coron-
  123. myo
  124. exudate
    a mass of cells and fluid that has seeped out of the blood vessels or organs especially inflammation.
  125. Viscosity
    thinkness of a fluid as compared with water. (blood is 5 times thicker)
  126. Average blood volume for Males?
    6 liters
  127. Average blood volume for females?
    5 liters
  128. Is blood alkaline or acidic?
    Alkaline PH of 7.45-7.35
  129. Plasma
    90% water remaining is electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, biliruben and gases.
  130. Plasma proteins
    manufactured by the liver- albumins, globulins and fibrinogen
  131. Albumin
    60% of plasma proteins-maintain normal blood volume and pressure by osmosis.
  132. Osmosis
    fluid flows from a lesser concentration of solute to a greater concentration of solute. maintains balance.
  133. globulins
    36% of plasma protein there are three types (alpha, beta and gamma.)
  134. globulin-alpha and beta
    transport lipids in the blood
  135. Globulin-gamma-
    are the antibodies that function in immunity.
  136. Fibrionogen
    4% of plasma-essential in blood clotting
  137. differentiation
    specialized in function
  138. Leukocytes
    Granulocytes and agranulocytes
  139. granulocytes
    • neutrophils-60-70%=phagocytes
    • eosinophils-2-4%=allergic reaction
    • basophils-1%=allergic reaction-releases histamine and heparin.
  140. Agranulocytes
    • Monocytes-3-8%-phagocytic
    • lymphocytes-20-25% some are phagocytic and others produce antibodies.
  141. thrombocytopenia
    an unusual low level of platelets in the blood
  142. average platelet count per cubic mililiter of blood.
    250-500 thousand
  143. INR
    International Normalized Ration-for clotting factor anything above 4.5 is too thin of blood or thrombocytopenia and anything below 2 is considered a caution for thromboembolisms
  144. TSH
    Thyroid stimulating hormone
  145. UDS
    Urinary drug screen
  146. Carbapenem
    beta-lactam antibiotics-broad spectrum-last resort for e-coli and most bacterial infections.
  147. Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    master gland that secretes hormones that control of functions of other glands.
  148. anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)
    • secretes the following hormones
    • HGH-human growth hormone
    • ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
    • LTH-lactogenic hormone
    • FSH-follicle stimulating hormone
    • LH-luteinizing hormone
    • MSH- melanocyte stimulating hormone
  149. HGH-Human growth hormone
    ((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    Somatotropic hormone (STH)- regulates the growth of bone, muscle and other body tissues.
  150. ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    stimulates the normal growth and development of adrenal cortex-secretion of corticosteroids (primarily cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone.)
  151. TSH-Thyroid stimulating hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    promotes and maintains the normal growth and development of thyroid gland and stimulates the secretion of the thyroid hormones.
  152. LTH-lactogenic hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    prolactin promotes the development of the breasts during pregnancy and stimulates the secretion of milk after birth.
  153. FSH-Follicle stimulating hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    Stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the production of eggs (ova)-also stimulates production of sperm in the male testes.
  154. LH-luteinizing hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    stimulates female ovulation and the secretion of testosterone (male sex hormone) in the male.
  155. MSH-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-((Anterior pituitary gland)/Adenohypophysis)
    controls the intensity of pigmentation in pigmented cells of the skin.
  156. Posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)
    • ADH-antidiuretic hormone
    • OT- oxytocin
  157. ADH-Antidiuretic hormone-((Posterior pituitary gland) neurohypophysis)
    Also called vasopressin, decreases the excretion of large amounts of urine from body-reabsorption of water by renal tubules.
  158. OT-oxytocin-((Posterior pituitary gland) neurohypophysis)
    stimulates the contration of the uterus during childbirth stimulates the release of milk from the breasts in lactating women.
  159. Pineal gland
    Exact function not completely known-but does seem to play a role in our biological clock- patterns of eating, sleeping and reproduction. Responsible for secreting melatonin.
  160. Thyroid gland
    • secretes¬†
    • T3-triiodothyronine
    • T4-thyroxine
    • calcitonin
  161. T3-Triiodothyronine
    regulates growth and development of the body, controls metabolism and body temperature.
  162. T4-Thyroxine
    helps maintain normal body metabolism
  163. Calcitonin
    regulates the level of calcium in the blood
  164. Parathyroid
    PTH-parathormone- regulates level of calcium in blood-more hormone increases calcium in the blood.
  165. Thymus
    • located in mediastinum-Important role in lymphatic system in the development of the immune system.
    • Thymosin-stimulate the production of T-cells
    • Thymopoietin- also thought to stimulate production of T cells
  166. Thymosin (thymus)
    stimulate production of T-Cells
  167. thymopoietin
    Stimulate production of T-cells.
  168. adrenal glands (adrenal cortex-outer) (Adrenal medulla-inner)
    Located on top of kidneys-ineer and outer portion of adrenals function differently.
  169. Adrenal cortex (outer portion)
    • Greater portion of adrenal gland- secretes corticosteroids-
    • Mineralocorticoids
    • glucocorticoids
    • gonadocorticoids
  170. Adrenal Medulla (inner portion)
    • norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
    • epinephrine (adrenaline)
  171. Mineralocorticoids
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • regulates mineral salts-electrolytes. primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone.
  172. Glucocorticoids
    • adrenal cortex
    • influence the metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins. also necessary for maintaining blood pressure. in times of stress increased secretion increases the glucose available for skeletal muscles needed in fight or flight.
    • Main hormone is cortisol.
  173. Gonadocorticoids
    Sex hormones
  174. Andrenal Medulla
    Epinephrine-Increases HR, dilates bronchiolesm, increase contractility, converts glycogen into glucose. Mimics SNS.
  175. Norepinephrine
    noradrenaline- vasocontrictor effect on the blood vessels. increases BP. AKA- Sympathomimetic.
  176. Pancreas
    • contains specialized group of cells called islets of langerhans-they create¬†
    • Glucagon
    • insulin
  177. Glucagon
    produced by the alpha cells of islet of langerhans. increases blood sugar and is stored in the liver.
  178. Insulin
    produced by Beta cells of islet of langerhans. decreases blood sugar and allows glucose to cross the cells membrane in the blood.
  179. Ovaries
    produces estrogen- promotes the maturation of the ovum (egg)
  180. progesterone
    primarily responsible for the changes that occur within the uterus in anticipation of a fertilized ovum.
  181. testes
    androgens which are male steroid hormones. also produce testorterone which is responsible for the secondary sex characteristic changes that occur in the male with puberty.
  182. Acr/o-
  183. Aden/o-
  184. -al
    pertaining to
  185. cep-
  186. delt-
  187. -desis
    to bind
  188. dia-
  189. fasci
  190. -in
    neutral substance
  191. iso-
    same, alike
  192. kinesi-
  193. Lemm-
    peel, rind
  194. masset-
  195. phargm-
    fence, partition
  196. -rrhexis
  197. sarco-
    flesh, muscle
  198. syn-
  199. tetan-
  200. Aspirin overdose
    Acetylsalicylic acid- Acute- kidney damage, gastritis, nausea, vomiting. good recovery.
  201. Acetaminophen overdose
    example of tylenol-Hepatic failure! DEATH
  202. troph-
    nourish, develop
  203. What percent of body weight is muscle?
  204. Muscle contraction functions
    • movement
    • posture
    • joint stability
    • heat production(85% of total body heat)
  205. muscular dystrophy
    an inherited, chronic, progressive wasting and weakening of muscles without involvement of the nervous system.
  206. myoparesis
    weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle
  207. visceral muscle
    walls of internal organs and blood vessels (involuntary)
  208. cardiac muscle
    heart (involuntary)
  209. skeletal muscle
    attached to bones (voluntary)
  210. -atresia
    without an opening
  211. azot-
    urea, nitrogen
  212. -cele
    hernia, swelling
  213. -chrom-
  214. cyst-
  215. -ectasy
  216. -etic
    pertaining to
  217. Juxta-
    near to
  218. ket-
    ketone bodies
  219. mict-
    to pass
  220. neph-
  221. olig-
    few, little
  222. -pexy
  223. -phraxis
    to obstruct
  224. pyel-
    renal pelvis
  225. ren-
  226. -rrhaphy
  227. -ur-
  228. alkalosis
    high pH in blood
  229. acidosis
    blood has lower pH
  230. glomerular capsule
    double-layered epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerulus in a nephron; also called bowmans capsule.
  231. azotemia
    presence of increased amounts of nitrogen waste products in the blood
  232. cystoscopy
    visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
  233. Kidneys
    eliminates metabolic wastes; helps maintain pH and ion concentration of body fluids.
  234. erythropoietin
    hormone secreted by the urinary system to help control red blood cell production
  235. Renin
    enzyme secreted by urinary system to help maintain fluid homeostasis. (Juxtaglomerular cells)
  236. enuresis
    involuntery emission of urine; bed-wetting
  237. Calyx (Kay-lex)
    portion of the kidney where urea is collected.
  238. Afferent arteriole
    blood enters here in the glomerulus and is filitered.
  239. efferent
    blood leaves after being filitered in the bowmans capsule.
  240. rugae (roo-jee)
    folds in the mucosa of the bladder/ stomach the aid in expansion
  241. detrusor muscle
    smooth muscle fibers that are interwoven in all direction this is found in the bladder.
  242. apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  243. angiotensin II
    renin promotes this which is a powerful vasoconstrictor.
  244. palilalia
    repetition of words or syllables
  245. perforation
    a hole
  246. echolalia
    repetition of a single word
  247. ana-
  248. -sta-
    to control, staying
  249. -tom-
  250. viscer-
    internal organs
  251. -y
    process, condition
  252. eponym (EP-OH-NRM)
    NAME OF A DISEASE, STRUCTURE, OPERATION. or procedure that is based on the name of an individual usually the person who discovered or described it first.
  253. Syndrome
    a combination of signs and symptoms occurring together that characterize a specific disease.
  254. hidr-
  255. -ichthy
    scaly, dry
  256. onych-
  257. pachy-
  258. pedicul-
    louse, lice
  259. pil-
  260. rhytid-
  261. sud-
  262. alopecia
    absence of hair from skin areas where it normall grows
  263. eschar
    a slough produced by a burn or gangrene
  264. nevus
  265. pruritis
    severe iching