Socio Exam 2 *FOCUS*
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US Foreign born by World Region of Birth (2008):
Latin america is 53%
Inequalities Based on Race and Ethnicity: Functionalist Perspective
-Says the differences between racial and ethnic groups are largely cultural.
- -Solution: assimilation (Milton Gordon): a process where minority group members become part of the dominant group, losing their original group identity; assimilation is said to allow a society maintain its equilibrium (functionalist goal) if all cultures and races adopt one dominant culture.
- -Other countries maintain pluralism: Each ethnic or racial group maintains its own culture(cultural pluralism) or a separate set of social structures and institutions (structural pluralism)
Milton Gordon’s seven-stage assimilation model
- 1. cultural assimilation
- 2. structural assimilation: interaction w/ members of the dominant group
- 3. Marital assimilation: intermarriage
- 4. Identification assimilation: developing a sense of national identity
- 5. Attitude receptional assimilation: absence of prejudiced thoughts among dominant and minority group members
- 6. Behavioral receptional assimilation: absence of discrimination (lower wages for minorities would not exist)
- 7. Civic assimilation: absence of value and power conflicts.
Inequalities Based on Race and Ethnicity: Conflict perspective
-focuses on how the dynamics of racial and ethnic relations divide groups while maintain a dominant group (either a social class or racial/ethnic categories); relationships are based on power, force and coercion, rather than consensus= assimilation
-ethnocentriism and racism maintain the status quo by dividing indivduals along racial and ethnic lines.
Inequalities Based on Race and Ethnicity: Feminist perspective:
-Feminist theory intersects with multiculturalism through the analysis of multiple systems of oppression including categories of race, class, sexual oreintatiion, nation of origin, language, culture and ethnicity.
-Black feminist scholars note the misguided application of traditional feminist perspectives of the family, matriarcy, and reproduction to understand the experience of black women's live.
-Black women do not lead parallel lives, but rather diffferent lives.
Inequalities Based on Race and Ethnicity: Interactionist perspective:
-Race is a social construct, a human invention
-we learn about racial and ethnic categories through our social interaction
-Racial categories and identities serve as intersections of social beliefs, perceptions, and activities that are reinforced by enduring systems of rewards and penalties.
-Foreign born individuals in the US composing of
-states that account for highest immigration population?
-Largest group of immigrants in the US?
-Foreign born individuals in the US composing of 12.1 percent of the total population; highest number of foreign born ever recorded in the US History
-cali, NY, Tx, FL and NJ account for 63% of the immigrant population and only 35% of the native born population
-Mexico account for the majority of immigrants, almost six times the combined total of immigrants from china, hong kong and taiwan.
-2006, Bush proposed immigration reforms including strengthening border security w/ mexico and establishing a temporary worker program without the benefit of amnesty. Plan was criticized for creating a class of workers who would never become fully integrated in US society, and for focusing specifically on Mexican workers while ignoring all other immigrant groups.
Affirmative Action in Education:
-Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act?
-affirmative action policies have been applied to student recruitment, admissions and financial aid programs
- -Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act
- permits the consideration of race, national origin, sex or disability
- to provide opportunities to people who have been denied educational
Affirmative Action in Employment:
-when did he amend for gender?
-opponents of affirmative action believe that
-Proponents argue that
-In 1965; Johnson required govt contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment; Required contractors to take proactive measures to ensure equality in hiring without regard to race, religion, and national origin.
-Also established the equal employment opportunities commission; charged with enforcing and monitoring compliance among federal contractors
-in 1967; Johnson amended the order to include discrimination based on gender.
-state and local govts followed the lead of Fed govt and took formal steps to encourage employers to diversify their workforces.
-opponents of affirmative action believe that it encourages preferential entrapment for minorities
- Proponents argue that only through affirmative action policies can we address the historical societal discrimination that minorities experienced in the past.
Race & Ethnicity Reading Notes
-Native vs Foreign born: stats
-nation's largest ethnic group
-Omi and winant (1994) Racism is a concept; race is subjective, an illusion but still powerful and seems to be a permanent feature of US culture
-Redfield (1958): "Race is a human invention"
-The Federal definition of ethnicity is based on the "office of Management and Budet's 1977 guideline" which defines ethnicity in terms of hispanic/non-hispanic status; so that in 2002, Hispanics were the nation's largest ethnic group
-2012: minority births were the majority (50.4%)
-Native vs Foreign born: Most foreign born US residents originate from Latin America (53.1 %), Asian (28.2%) and Europe (12.1%)
-Refugees-defined by the Immigration and Nationality Act
Racism/Ethnicty Interactionist Perspective:
-Howard McGary: defines the practices as a commonly accepted course of action that may be over time habitual in nature, a course of action that specifies certain forms of behavior as permissible and other impermissible with rewards and penalities assigned accordingly; so that racial categories serve as intersecton of social believes, persceptions and activities reinformced by this system
-"Multiracial" acknowlegement of a new racial category
-"ethnic attrition": individuals choose not to self-identify as a member of a particular ethnic group (30 % of Mexican youth; "paterns of intergenerational whitening" in latin america where highly educated non-white brazilians were found to be more likely to label their children as white rather than less-educated non-white brazillians (swartzman)
Income and Wealth (Ethnicity/Racism)
-Dalton Conley: "racism is so associated w/ class in the US that it might not be direct discrimination, but it still matters indirectly"
- Us Census: Black households had the lowest median income in 2011 ($32,229), 58% of the median income for non-hispanic white households was $55,412) THe median income for hispanics: $38,624.Asian households had the highest median income: $65,129 o:
-Home ownership is one of the primary means to accumulate wealth, it enables families to finance college and invest in their future.
-Feagin(1999): identifies how inequality in home ownership has contributed to inequality in other aspects of American life, Specifically blacks have been disadvantaged because of their lack of home ownership, particulary in their inability to provide their children with "the kind of education" needed to compete equally or fairly with whites.
-2004: US home ownership reached a record high of %69.2 with 73.4 billion
-W. Michael Byrd and Linda Clayton(2002)
- -Sara Rosenbaum and Joel Teitelbaum:The issues is twofold--access to health care and the quality of care received once in the system,
- First: Health insurance which significanlly discrimnates against a racial and ethnic minority (Whites: lowest uninsured rate of 11.1%, Blacks (19.5 %), Asians (16.8% and then hispanics (30.1%) and most likely to have Medicaid.
- Second:They are less likely to receive the level of care provided to whites for the same condition regarless of their insurance status.
assert that the health crisis among african americans and poor populations is fueled by a medical
-social culture laded with idealogical, intellectual and scientific, and discriminatory race and class problems.
Top Top Ten Countries With the Highest Percentage of Seats in Natonal Parliaments Held by Women (2009):
Rwanda, Sweden, South Africa, Cuba, Iceland, Argentina, Finland, Netherlands, Denmark, Angola
Functionalist Perspective on Gender Inequality:
-"Gendered division of labor"
-Argues that gender inequality is inevitable b/c of the biological division of labor in the household.
"Gendered division of labor" makes gender inequality inevitable; "gender inequality is defined not as a product of differential power but rather as a functional necessity; women who assert their rights for social and economic equality are seen as attacking the structure of society
-Durkheim: social evolution led to the exaggeration of sex differences in personalities and abilities.
- Gender inequality is not defined as a product of differential power, but rahter as a functional necessity.
-A change in gender roles (along women) undermines social institutions (like stability of the family) and ultimately society.
Conflict & Feminist Perspectives on Gender Inequality:
-Sexism: individualized or institutionalized
-both perspectives argue?
-how do feminists refer to gender? Early vs contemp?
-Gender inequality exists because it benefits a group in power and with power to shape society--men.
-patriarchy: a system where men are dominant over women.
-In our capitalist economy, men are rewarded w/ higher wages, more prestige, and greater authority in the workplace; at home, men are treated with deference by their wives and children
-Sexism may be an individual act, but it can also become institutionalized in our organizations or through laws and common practices.
-Both perspectives argue that women will remain in their subordinate position as long as men maintain their social,economic, and cultural advantage in society.
-women's subordinate position in society is linked to their relationship to the means of productions, a fundamental concept of Marx.
-Structural inequalities b/w men and women don't just discriminate against women, from this perspective tackling gender inequality means to question gendered structures at various levels (labor, child care, socialization, family) and to address the experience of men and women equally.
-Early feminist scholars treated gender as an indivdiaul attrribute, as a propery of individuals or as a par of the role that was sacquired through socialization BUT CONTEMPORARY Feminists refer to gender as a process, a system of social practices that creates and maintains gender distinctions and inqualities.
-Conflicts: identify how women's suborodinate positon is linked to their relationship to the means of production.
the gender practice that guarantees the dominant social position of men and the subordinate social postion of women.
Interactionist Perspective on Gender Inequality:
-argues that we sort individuals into categories such as race and gender; social categorization is important because it sets into motion the production of gender difference and inequality
-norms, values, and beliefs about the differences b/w boys and girls and men and women are reinforced thru the gender socialization process.
-Characteristics of those who are privileged become social norms. In terms of gender, men are privileged and serve as the standard.
-social values and meanings are expressed in our langauge, our language reflects the privileged position granted to men. ("male priviledge)
Consequences of Gender Inequality: Occupational Sex Segregation
women continue to dominate traditionally female occupations despite educational and occupational gains.
Ex: 97% of secretaries are women, 92% of receptionists and 91.3% RN's
-"it is "nature" to do these women-leading occupational jobs.
Responding to Gender Inequalities:Feminist movements and Social Policies
-when did movement begin, by whom?
-second wave laws?
-Historians mark the first wave feminist movement in US throught the world in the 19th century.
- -The US feminist movement began in 1848 w/ the first women's rights convention lead by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott: adopted a declaration of sentiments demanding, among other things, women's right to vote.
- -SIimiliar movement also began in Great Britain at same time, with increasing demands for women's political and economic equality.
- -The nineteeth amendment in 1920 affirmed US women the right to vote, in great Britain, women were given the right to vote in 1918.
=> Third wave of feminism in the 90's:
- => Second wave focused on expanding legal rights for women
- -1964 Title VII of the civil rights act was passed prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace and providing equal workplace opportunities for women and minorities. -1972: Title IX of the educational Amendments was passed.
- => The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): the 27th amendment did not passes; which proposed "equality of rights under law shall not be denied or abridge by the US or by any state on account of "sex".
acknowledges oppression based on race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation in addition to sex.
4th described as a movement withoutone cohesive cause, leader or platform;
"gender mainstreaming"the integraton of the gender perspective into every stage of the policy process" along the European union; sweden is the pioneer in developing policies for men's involvement in child care.
-Three methods of compliance with Title IX:
-Prohibits the exclusion of any person from participation in an educational program or the denial of benefits based on one's sex.
- -Three methods of compliance with Title IX:
- 1. The percentage of male and famale athletes is about the same as the percent of students enrolled.
- 2. School has a history and a continuing practice of expanding oppurtunities for female students.
- 3. School is fully and effectively meeting its female student's interests and abilitities to participate in sports.
-Schools must also equitably allocate scholarships, treat men and women equally in all aspects of sports programming (equipment, scheduling, financial support, etc)
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND INEQUALITY
-1996 Defense of Marriage act (DOMA)
-institutionallized heterosexuality: the set of ideas, institutions, and relationships that define the heterosexual family as the societal norm.
-1996 Defense of Marriage act (DOMA) denies federal recognition of same-sex unions, defining marriage as a legal union only b/w a man and a woman: This legislation serves as a declaration about how the heterosexual family is valued and how all other family fors are not; other forms of sexuality are considered deviant or unnatural because they do not fit society's ideal.
CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND INEQUALITY
--Three types of heterosexual bias have been identified in welfare policy:
assumes that heterosexuality is the norm, encouraging discrimination in favor of heterosexual and against homosexuals.
defined as the set of privileges or advantages granted to some.
- -Three types of heterosexual bias have been identified in welfare policy:
- 1. policies that explicity target LGBT individuals as abonormal or deviant.
- 2. Federal defintions that assume that all families are heterosexual.
- 3. Policies that overlook LGBT poverty and social needs because of stereotypes about affluence.
non-normal sex: like anal, oral, beastiality.
FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND INEQUALITY:
-radical vs Liberal reform views
The question about gay marriage rights is bound to the ongoing critique of marriage as an institution.
-Radical feminists reject marriage outright on the basis of marriage as an oppressive institution.
-Liberal reform feminists support the choice to marry on the understanding that men and women (or same sex couples) can conduct their marriages in nontraditional ways.
INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND INEQUALITY:
-The term "heterosexuality"
-Homophobia: prejudice, irrational fear, discrimination, or intolerance of homosexuals; homophobia is particulary directed at gay men.
-interactionists examine how sexual orientation is constructed within a social context
-The term "heterosexuality" is a social inventtion that designates a concept particular to the late 19th and 20th centuries; though heterosexuality existed before, it played an important role in consolidating the construction of the heterosexual's social existence.
-Internationists also examine the proceess of how individuals identify themselves as homosexual or the development of a gay identity.
-Coming out has come to symbolize the pursuit of individual rights and self identification; implies not just the disclosure of a gay identity, but also the individual's positive attitude toward and commitment to that identity.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND INEQUALITY Employment:
-Title VII of the civil rights act
-b/w 16-46% of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals have experienced discrimination based on sex orientation
-Title VII of the civil rights act prohibits discrimination b/c of sex ( such as skin color gender), which means that protection fro homosexuals based on sexual orientation is not covered.
-Unlike discrimination based on characteristics such as skin color or gender discrimination, jobs or missing promotion against gays and lesbians must be based on knowledge or suspicion of someone's sexual orientation
-b/w 1/4th and 2/3rds of LGBT people report losing their jobs or missing promotions b/c of their sexual orientations
-Gay workers earn less than heterosexual workers
-Currently there is no federal law that protects LGBT individuals from employment discrimination
-2009, the employment Non Discrimination Act (ENDA) was introduced in the US against workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity; 21 states and hundred US cities and countries, and more than 80% of all Fortune 500 companies have similiar protections
Responding to Sexual Orientation Inequalities
-first state to legalize same sex couples
-first European country to recognize same sex unions?
-status of legal same sex unions in how many states in 2010?
-what country passed an act that was the first in the world to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation?
In 2003; the Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that same-sex and opposite-sex couples must be given equal civil rights under the state's constitution; allowed same sex couples to obtain a civil marriage license, make health and financial decisions for each other, file joint state tax returns, and receive other protections under state law.
-In May 2004: Massachusetts became the first state in the nation to let same sex couples marry
-As of 2010, five us states and the District of Columbia have legalized gay marriage while other states offer limited form of domestic partnership to same sex couples.
-Though gay marriage was legal for a short time, on Nov 4, 2008, 52% of cali voters approved prop 8: a measure that restricted the definition of marriage to opposite sex couples.
--> Denmark was the first European country to recognize same sex unions in 1989
-civil unions or gay marriages or partnerships are legal in belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, and Canada.
- The Netherlands first recognized Same sex as legal in 2001
-In 2006, South Africa passed it's Civil Union Act, which is based on their constitution which was the first in the world to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.
-Marriages legal in these countries may not be recognized in other countries.
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