Chapter 30

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Chapter 30
2014-03-25 13:48:51

Musculoskeletal Trauma and Nontraumatic Fractures
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  1. Musculoskeletal System
    • Gives the body shape
    • Protects the internal organs
    • Provides for movement
    • Stores salts and other minerals needed for metabolism
    • Produces red blood cells necessary for oxygen transport
  2. Fracture
    A break in the continuity of a bone
  3. Osteoporosis
    • A degenerative bone disorder associated with an accelerated loss of minerals, primary calcium, from the bone.
    • Dramatically weakens the bone and makes them susceptible to fracture
  4. Strain
    An injury to a muscle or a muscle and tendon, possibly caused by overextension, or overstretching
  5. Sprain
    An injury to a joint capsule, with damage to or tearing of the connective tissue, and usually involves ligaments
  6. Dislocation
    The displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint
  7. Direct Force
    Occurs at the point of impact
  8. Indirect Force
    The force impacts on one end of a limb, causing injury some distance away from the point of impact
  9. Twisting Force
    One part of the extremity remains stationary while the rest twist
  10. Crepitus
    The sound or feel of broken fragments of bone grinding against each other
  11. Six Ps
    • Pain
    • Pallor
    • Paralysis
    • Paresthesia (numbness)
    • Pressure
    • Pulses
  12. Splint
    Any device used to immobilize a body part
  13. General Rules of Splinting
    • Check PMS before and after
    • Immobilize the joints above and below a long bone injury
    • Remove or cut away all clothing around the injury site
    • Cover all wounds, including open fractures, with sterile dressing
    • If there is a severe deformity or the distal extremity is cyanotic or lacks pulses, align the injured limb with gentle manual traction
    • Never intentionally replace protruding bones or push them back into the skin
    • Pad each splint to prevent pressure and discomfort
    • Apply the splint before trying to move the patient
    • When in doubt, splint the injury
    • If the patient shows signs of shock, align the patient in the┬ánormal anatomical position
  14. Compartment Syndrome
    A condition in which increased tissue pressure in a confined space causes decreased blood flow, leading to hypoxia and possible muscle, nerve, and vessel impairment, which may be permanent if the cells die
  15. Nontraumatic Fracture
    Results from a disease that causes degeneration and dramatically weakens the bone, making it prone to fracture