Chapter 31

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Chapter 31
2014-03-25 14:34:20

Head Trauma
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  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    Protects the brain and spinal cord against impact
  2. Meninges
    Layers of tissues that protect the surface of the brain

    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia Mater
  3. Epidural
    Bleeding that occurs between the dura mater and the skull
  4. Subdural Bleeding
    Occurs beneath the dura and is usually venous
  5. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    Bleeding that occurs between the arachnoid membrane and the surface of the brain
  6. Cerebrum
    • Largest part of the brain
    • Two hemispheres right and left
    • Each hemisphere four distinct lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  7. Cerebellum
    Little brain; controls equilibrium and coordinates muscle activities
  8. Brainstem
    Controls most automatic functions of the body, including cardiac, respiratory, vasomotor, and other functions vital to life
  9. Linear Skull Fracture
    Most common; resembles a line
  10. Depressed Skull Fracture
    Occurs when the bone ends are pushed inward toward the brain
  11. Basilar Skull Fracture
    Fracture to the floor or bottom of the cranium
  12. Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)
    Injury to the brain that results from shearing, tearing and stretching of nerve fibers
  13. Concussion
    • Normal mild diffuse axonal injury which involves stretching, tearing, and shearing of brain tissue
    • Normally causes┬ásome disturbance in brain function ranging from momentary confusion to complete loss of responsiveness, and usually causes headache
  14. Contusion
    Bruising and swelling of the brain tissue
  15. Subdural Hematoma
    • A collection of blood between the dura mater and the arachnoid layer.
    • Typically due to low-pressure venous bleeding
  16. Epidural Hematoma
    Arterial or venous bleeding pools between the skull and the dura
  17. Laceration
    Permanent injury, almost always results in bleeding, and can cause massive disruption of the nervous system
  18. Brain Herniation
    Compression of the brain
  19. Consensual Reflex
    Same or similar reaction of the unstimulated pupil when the other pupil is stimulated
  20. Raccoon Sign
    • Purplish discoloration of the soft tissues around one or both eyes
    • May be an indication of intracranial injury
  21. Battle Sign
    A purplish discoloration of the mastoid area behind the ear; delayed and very late sign of basilar skull fracture
  22. Cushing Reflex
    • The systolic blood pressure increases and the heart rate decreases
    • Sign of severe head injury, increasing intracranial pressure, and possible herniation
  23. Diplopia
    Double vision
  24. Retrograde Amnesia
    The patient is unable to remember circumstances leading up to the incident
  25. Anterograde Amnesia
    The patient is unable to remember circumstance after the incident