EKG Exam 3

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Author:
Pandora320
ID:
267898
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EKG Exam 3
Updated:
2014-04-16 14:45:56
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EKG
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  1. Normal axis range
    -30° to +105°
  2. Relative deviation
    Deviation of more than 90° from one "normal" value to another "normal" value (e.g. -5° to 90°)
  3. Absolute deviation
    Axis falls outside of normal range
  4. LAD range
    -30° to -90°
  5. Causes of LAD
    • High diaphragm
    • Pregnancy
    • Obesity
    • Left ventricular hypertrophy
    • Right ventricular infarction
    • LBBB
    • Abdominal tumor
  6. RAD range
    +105° to 180°
  7. Causes of RAD
    • Young patients
    • Thin patients
    • Dextrocardia
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy
    • Left ventricular infarction
    • RBBB
    • Emphysema
    • Pulmonary infarcts/emboli
  8. Physiologic causes of RAD
    • High Diaphragm
    • Pregnancy
    • Obesity
    • Tall Patient
  9. Axis shifts toward _______ and away from _______
    • Hypertrophy
    • Infarction
  10. Axis refers to:
    • Anatomical position of the heart
    • Direction of electrical flow in atria
    • Magnitude and direction of total current
  11. QRS complexes with a shortened height due to:
    • Pericardial effusion
    • Obesity
  12. Criteria for an abnormally small amplitude for QRS complex
    • Voltage of less than 5 mm in all the limb leads
    • Waves of less than 10 mm in height in precordial leads
    •   
  13. Causes of RAE
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Pulmonary emboli
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Mitral, tricuspid, or pulmonary valve disease
  14. P-pulmonale
    Peaked (tee-pee) P waves in Leads II and/or III > 2.5 mm
  15. Causes of LAE
    • Severe systemic hypertension
    • Aortic or mitral valve disease
    • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
    • Left ventricle failure
    • Anything that obstructs forward flow
  16. P-mitrale
    Notched P wave in Leads I and/or II > 0.12 sec
  17. Causes of RVH
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Multiple pulmonary emboli
    • Primary pulmonary hypertension
    • Scarring
    • Valvular disease (Pulmonic insufficiency, Pulmonic stenosis)
    • COPD
    • VSD
  18. RVH
    • large R wave on V1
    • R>S
  19. Causes of LVH
    • Outflow problem, pressure overload develops when ventricle has to pump harder against resistance such as:
    • -High arterial blood pressure
    • -Stenosed aortic valve
    • -Volume or dilation problem, volume overload
    • Valvular disease:
    • -Aortic insufficiency
    • -Aortic stenosis
    • -Mitral insufficiency
    • Hypertension
  20. IVCD
    Interventricular Conduction Delays
  21. Length of QRS complex in a BBB
    • QRS >= 0.12 sec
    • Slow because impulse has to travel cell to cell
  22. Causes of RBBB
    • Idiopathic degeneration of conduction fibers
    • Ischemic heart disease (of anterior septum)
    • Small area of infarction
  23. RBBB
    Notched (bunny ears) in QRS in V1, V2
  24. Causes of LBBB
    • ­Widespread myocardial disease
    • Degenerative disease of conduction system
    • Ischemic heart disease
    • Causes of LVH
  25. LBBB
    Notched (bunny ears) in QRS in V5, V6
  26. If LBBB is present (Notched QRS in V5 and/or V6)....
    Can't diagnose LVH or RVH
  27. If RBBB is present (Notched QRS in V1 and/or V2)....
    Can't diagnose RVH, but use criteria to determine LVH
  28. Early warning of impending infarction
    Spontaneous appearance of Mobitz AV Block or BBB
  29. Incomplete BBB or right/left ventricular conduction delay
    If QRS < 0.12 but RSR’ present

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