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- - Father of modern Philosophy.
- -thought that nature is to be understood in mechanical terms.
- - Mathematized scientific method for material world.
- - eternal truths
- Principle of sufficient Reason: Cause> =effect
- - mind and body are 2 different things
- -doesn't think the understanding of a marker can be the same understanding to understand a human
- - senses deceive
- - dream argument
- - evil genius: supremely powerful, controls thoughts can fool/deceive me
Evaluation of Ideas
- - all ideas could be self-produced save the idea of God
- - I do not have enough "reality" to have cause this idea, only God could have caused the idea of God.
- Background: Rosencrantz and Gildenstern sent to spy on him. Ends bloody (a tragedy)
- - to be or not to be-is life worth living at all
- - mathematical
- - man is "between" everything and nothing
- - neither rationalism nor skepticism, no anchor
- - boredom and the need for diversion
Fundamental Cause of Unhappiness
- man is not enjoying the silence of his own room.
- The only really existing things are matter and energy.
- - a metaphysical position
- -inherently an atheism?
- nothing but natural beings, causes explanations
- - everything (man, thing) play by the same rules
- - no mystery in the functioning of the universe
- - methodological vs. phulosophical
- all natural phenomenon can be explained by natural causes
- Ex. Descartes- Body is a machine
- what Mechanism, Naturalism, and Materialism have in common.
- - a complex system is just a sum of parts
- - reduce explanations to fewest number of laws, principles, or causes
- -Reduction of reason to mere calculation
- - computational reason
- - artificial reason
- - Scope of mathematics extended
Thomas Hobbes -Leviathon
- - politics
- - English philosopher
- - foundation of much of "classical liberation"
- - influenced American founders along with John Locke
State of Nature
- - the state man is in prior to political power/organization
- - war of all against all
- - very unpleasant (nasty, brutish, and short)
- - various drawbacks (no industry, culture,etc)
How is "State of Nature" still found today?
- - behind the police
- - crop up form time to time
- - relations between nations
3 parts of "State of Nature"
- No morality, No justice
- Social Contract
- Law of Nature
No morality, No justice
- - nothing just or unjust in state of nature
- - each pursues his own self-interest (his appetites & desires)
- - no property no peace
- - Society arises out of social contract, motivated by (obligated to live by):
- Fear: we want security
- Reason: provides natural laws
- Liberty: freedom from external constraint
- think rights of nature from book
Law of Nature
- - general rule discerned by reason
- - self-preservation and whatever enable me to preserve myself
- Seek peace but prepare for war
- Give up some natural rights (things that are within my power to do) for peace
the view that the struture of the mind (what is conceivable/inconceivable) is the same as the structure of reality (what is possible/impossible)
- Metaphysical realm atoms:physical
- indivisible, soul-like entities
- pre-existing harmony each monad follows a preprogrammed set of instructions such that every part of the universe works in concert
- the attempt to show that evil in the world does not conflict with the perfect goodness and power of God
- God: existence of God can be inferred from perfect universe
Problem of Evil
- 1. God is Omnipotent
- 2. God is good
- 3. There is Evil
- 1. natural Evil
- 2. moral Evil
Candide is a great challenge to and mockery of Leibniz's optimism
What is Voltaire's example of mockery
Columbus brought back syphilis, but at least we have chocolate and dye. Like the disease was the only way we could have chocolate.