Humanities exam 3

Card Set Information

Author:
cassiebarker
ID:
267942
Filename:
Humanities exam 3
Updated:
2014-03-25 17:20:43
Tags:
Descartes Hamlet Pascal Mechanism materialism Hobbes Leibniz Voltaire
Folders:
humanities
Description:
Renaissance-Kant and Mill on ethincs
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user cassiebarker on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Rene Descartes
    • - Father of modern Philosophy.
    • -thought that nature is to be understood in mechanical terms.
  2. Rationalism
    • - Mathematized scientific method for material world.
    • - eternal truths
    • Principle of sufficient Reason: Cause> =effect
    • (Descartes)
  3. Dualism
    • - mind and body are 2 different things
    • -doesn't think the understanding of a marker can be the same understanding to understand a human
    • (Descartes)
  4. Radical doubt
    • - senses deceive
    • - dream argument
    • - evil genius: supremely powerful, controls thoughts can fool/deceive me
    • (Descartes)
  5. Evaluation of Ideas
    • - all ideas could be self-produced save the idea of God
    • - I do not have enough "reality" to have cause this idea, only God could have caused the idea of God.
    • (Descartes)
  6. Hamlet
    • Background: Rosencrantz and Gildenstern sent to spy on him. Ends bloody (a tragedy)
    • - to be or not to be-is life worth living at all
  7. Pascal
    • - mathematical
    • - man is "between" everything and nothing
    • - neither rationalism nor skepticism, no anchor
    • - boredom and the need for diversion
  8. Fundamental Cause of Unhappiness
    • man is not enjoying the silence of his own room.
    • (Pascal)
  9. Materialism
    • The only really existing things are matter and energy. 
    • - a metaphysical position
    • -inherently an atheism?
  10. Naturalism
    • nothing but natural beings, causes explanations
    • - everything (man, thing) play by the same rules
    • - no mystery in the functioning of the universe
    • - methodological vs. phulosophical
  11. Mechanism
    • all natural phenomenon can be explained by natural causes
    • Ex. Descartes- Body is a machine
  12. Reductionism
    • what Mechanism, Naturalism, and Materialism have in common.
    • - a complex system is just a sum of parts
    • - reduce explanations to fewest number of laws, principles, or causes
  13. Reason
    • -Reduction of reason to mere calculation
    • - computational reason
    • - artificial reason
    • - Scope of mathematics extended
  14. Thomas Hobbes -Leviathon
    • - politics
    • - English philosopher
    • - foundation of much of "classical liberation" 
    • - influenced American founders along with John Locke
  15. State of Nature
    • - the state man is in prior to political power/organization
    • - war of all against all
    • - very unpleasant (nasty, brutish, and short)
    • - various drawbacks (no industry, culture,etc)
  16. How is "State of Nature" still found today?
    • - behind the police
    • - crop up form time to time
    • - relations between nations
  17. 3 parts of "State of Nature"
    • No morality, No justice
    • Social Contract
    • Law of Nature
  18. No morality, No justice
    • - nothing just or unjust in state of nature
    • - each pursues his own self-interest (his appetites & desires)
    • - no property no peace
  19. Social Contract
    • - Society arises out of social contract, motivated by (obligated to live by):
    •      Fear: we want security
    •      Reason: provides natural laws
    •      Liberty: freedom from external constraint
    •      think rights of nature from book
    • (Leviathon)
  20. Law of Nature
    • - general rule discerned by reason
    • - self-preservation and whatever enable me to preserve myself
    •      Seek peace but prepare for war 
    •      Give up some natural rights (things that are within my power to do) for peace
  21. Leibniz Rationalism
    the view that the struture of the mind (what is conceivable/inconceivable) is the same as the structure of reality (what is possible/impossible)
  22. Monads
    • Metaphysical realm   atoms:physical
    • indivisible, soul-like entities
    • pre-existing harmony each monad follows a preprogrammed set of instructions such that every part of the universe works in concert
    • (Leibniz)
  23. Theodicy
    • the attempt to show that evil in the world does not conflict with the perfect goodness and power of God
    • God: existence of God can be inferred from perfect universe
    • (Leibniz)
  24. Problem of Evil
    • 1. God is Omnipotent 
    • 2. God is good
    • 3. There is Evil
    •      1. natural Evil
    •      2. moral Evil
    • (Leibniz)
  25. Voltaire
    Candide is a great challenge to and mockery of Leibniz's optimism
  26. What is Voltaire's example of mockery
    Columbus brought back syphilis, but at least we have chocolate and dye. Like the disease was the only way we could have chocolate.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview