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List and describe the three general functions of the nervous system.
Sensory (receiving info), Integration (deciding what to do), and Motor (acting on those decisions)
List and describe the structural divisions of the nervous system.
Peripheral Nervous System (housing cranial and spinal nerves; has a sensory division, and a motor division with 2 subdivisions [somatic and autonomous]), and Cranial Nervous System (housing brain and spinal cord)
Structures at the end of peripheral neurons in the PNS that provide sensory function of the nervous system by detecting changes inside and outside of the body and converting that info to impulses.
Briefly describe the sensory function of the nervous system.
Sensory receptors in the PNS detect changes inside or outside of the body, gather the info, and convert that info into impulses which travel along peripheral nerves to the CNS
Briefly describe the integration function of the nervous system.
The impulses received from the PNS to the CNS are brought together, creating sensations, adding to memory, or helping to produce thoughts, and conscious or subconscious decisions are made.
Responsive structures that carry out the motor functions of the nervous system by acting upon the conscious or subconscious decisions made by the impulses in the CNS provided by the integration function; they are outside of the nervous system and include muscles an glands whose actions are controlled by nerve activity.
Briefly describe the Motor function of the nervous system.
The conscious or subconscious decisions made by the integrated impulses in the CNS are conducted back to the PNS to either the SNS (for conscious decisions) or the ANS (for subconscious decisions) and then communicated to effectors outside the PNS
Subdivision of the motor portion of the PNS that communicates voluntary (conscious) instructions originating in the CNS to skeletal muscles, causing contraction.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Subdivision of the motor portion of the PNS that communicates involuntary (subconscious) instructions from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, controlling viscera.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
One group of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord; where impulses are integrated.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
One group of the nervous system consisting of the cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to other body parts; where sensory and motor functions occur.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Nerve cells; one of two cell types of neural tissue; are specialized to react to physical and chemical changes surrounding it and conduct the input to dendrites.
Neurological cells; one of two cell types of neural tissue; nourish neurons and send and receive messages.
What are the four types of CNS neuroglia?
Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Ependyma
Star-shaped cells between neurons and blood vessels; provide structural support, form scar tissue, transport substances between blood vessels and neurons, communicate with other neurons, mop up excess ions and neurotransmitters, and induce synapse formation.
Shaped like astrocytes, but with fewer cellular processes, in rows along axons; form myelin sheaths in the brain and spinal cord, produce nerve growth factors.
Small cells with few cellular processes and found throughout the CNS; provide structural support and phagocytosis.
Cuboidal and columnar cells in the lining of the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord; form a porous layer through which substances diffuse between the interstitial fluid of the brain and spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid.
What are the two types of PNS neuroglia?
Schwann Cells and Satellite Cells
Cells with abundant, lipid-rich membranes that wrap tightly around the axons of peripheral neurons; they speed neurotransmission.
Small, cuboidal cells that surround cell bodies of neurons in ganglia; support ganglia in the PNS.
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