Allows us to see connections between individual- and structural- level phenomenon
Unemployment rates in Springfiled on the rise in the mid 1980's
It was on decline, as many factories, manufacturing plants close.
The lost generation
An entire generation of marginalized youth faced with a failing social structure. High unemployment. Low educational attainment. Low quality schools.
La Hacienda el Limon
Coffee plantation- employer of Juan Rivera. No running water or electricity. Harsh working conditions.
Negative externalities for Springfield workers
Loss of skilled manufacturing jobs meant decreased opportunity for upward social mobility
Colonial influence of U.S. on P.R.
English taught in schools. Economic decline. High unemployment. Political resistance.
Harsh living conditions in puerto rico
High infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, few doctors, few children in school, plantation based economy.
Roosevelt's New Deal
Experiments in economic reform for Puerto Rico in 1930's. Implemented key labor policies.
Puerto Rican Development Company
Formed in 1940's to manage several government owned industries
Made in late 1940's. Industrial Invitation.
Effects of rapid industrialization
Economy expanded rapidly. Most profits leaving the island for the mainland. Life expectancy and literacy rates improved over 1950's and 60's. Infrastructure improvement. Medical facilities. Benefits were not experienced equally.
They began to migrate to the mainland for work.
Became a way of life. They wanted to preserve cultural nationalism
Challenges of circular migration
Hard to preserve culture. Hard to get a good education.
Yonkers school segregation
Yonkers undergoing court ordered school desegregation in 1985 when Rivera's arrive in New York. Racial tensions were high.
Places and spaces make races
School performance low for children in poor, minority schools. Language barrier is a challenge for the brothers in school. Neighborhoods sites of racial and ethnic conflict.
Contrasts between neighborhood in Springfield.
Riveras- More Puerto Ricans then whites. Interstate between the two neighborhoods.
Concentration of political power
Policies dominated by white Irish ethnics. Minority groups not represented on the council.
Brightwood neighborhood in Springfield.
Magnet for criminal activity. Residentially segregated amidst poor housing conditions.
Police violence in puerto rican community
White police chief refuses to acknowledge that there is a problem.
Residents came together to identify and address the problem of police brutality in their community.
Schools vs. the Streets
Sammy's experiences in school are felt as failures. Lead him to " new ratio " of the drug trade. The street a place to belong, source of success and pride.
Schools as an arena for sorting and labeling
Students get put into categories that shape academic trajectories early on.
Structural failures of education
The system failed fuasto because they took him out of the bilingual program. Fausto couldn't stay in the better school. No fundamental support.
In the tenth grade Fausto was still unable to read and write.
Alternative of 2 way bilingual program
Research shows them as much more effective and less stigmatizing for students
Lack of funding and support, Low quality education, Lack of qualified bilingual teachers. Isolation of bilingual students.
Challenges of bilingual education
Lack of support for program. Poor funding. Preference for instruction in spanish. Students had sense of inferiority and isolation.
Drop out prevention program
No educational services offered, defunded. It was an after school work program to build skills and self esteem. Leads to Fausto working at Boys club, hitting the books and training for football.
Cities as the tail of the drug trade
Tremendous international industry. Hundreds of billions of dollars in trade.
Expansion of global drug trade in cities
Economic decline in cities. It opened economic opportunities to fill void left by closing manufacturing plants and factories.
Economic effects of drug trade
Springfield became a major distribution center. Increased incarceration rates by 236% between 1980-1990.
Money, Power, Respect
Sammy notes the power and respect commanded by the Acosta brothers. He works to show his loyalty to the operation. No contest for the school environment. Fausto echoes respect from the Acosta brothers and the power they yield in the community.
Limitations and opportunities shaping choices
Door to accedemic success seems to close. There are opportunities in the drug trade, but Fausto remains interested in school.
Streets vs. going legit
Fausto remains in school and " going legit " rather then going into the streets where there are more opportunities.
Fausto's application to the sociological imagination
Fausto sees and describes the world around him with remarkable insight, especially given his lack of formal education. Race and class inequality. Social mobility, Role of judicial system in drug arrests.
Experiences with GED program
Fausto tries to pursue GED program while his involvement in the drug trade deepens.
Thinks Fausto cheats on the GED test. Successful studying shows Fausto's intellect.
Emphasize difference in values
Identity and social statues
Identity is tied to social status.
Unearned advantage that is experienced by members of the dominated status group within a social category. White privilege, class privilege.
Power and inequality
Inequality and unfairness
Residentially segregated amidst poor housing conditions, but many paying above market price.
Street identity and authenticity
Important to Sammy's Greenfield success. Sammy and his associates are " preforming ghetto " to sell the image their clients want.
Code of the street- Anderson
A set of informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior, particularly violence.
Urban Cowboy Capitalism
Interpersonal and cultural codes of conduct, especially related to violence, are shaped by the unregulated drug market.
Puerto Rican enclave contributed to the process of " white flight ". Public space claimed by marginalized men to create and maintain there own identities.
Identities in opposition to authorities: school, police, white dominated culture.
Masculinity and violence
Masculinity often expressed/performed through violence. Emphasis on loyalty and respect
Mid 1990's gang proliferation in Springfield- Latin Kings- La Familia, Los Solidos
Having a " laff "
Means of acquiring respect promoting community and solidarity.
Economic forces in 1990's
Large scale economic changes effecting employment opportunities, wages, inequality.
Unemployment rates were climbing. There are more workers then jobs.
In 1993 the market began to recover from recession but it took a while to reach the lower end of the income scale.
Mundo and Sammy as exemplars, identities shift to dedicated fathers.
Importance of longitude profile
Shows the complexity of men, their choices, and their lives.
Drug addiction and recovery
Methadone maintenance, Fatherhood, Loving relationship with Maria, Steady work to contribute to the family wage.
Role of social networks
Julio's entrance into the trucking industry shows the importance of social networks. Julio and other cycle from on and off the street.
Deregulation of trucking agency
Loss of unions, union wages, job security. No benefits, less pay, part time rather then full time
Connections between politics and the economy
Reliance on Temp Agencies kept agencies and overhead costs low for employers at the expense of the low wage wagers.
Right to work laws
Implemented Mill's sociological imagination- makes connections b/t mens lives + political economic and social forces