Consequences of TBI and ICP

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Author:
brau2308
ID:
267961
Filename:
Consequences of TBI and ICP
Updated:
2014-03-25 19:27:29
Tags:
TBI
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Description:
review of the consequence of TBI review of ICP
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  1. Motor Impairments from TBI
    • orthopedic complications
    • decrease in strength
    • impaired functional mobility
    • poor coordination
    • balance impairments
    • problems with fine motor and hand function
    • impairments in speech
  2. Sensory impairments from TBI
    • taste
    • touch
    • hearing
    • vision
    • smell
  3. Autonomic impairments from TBI
    • arousal
    • awareness
    • sleep disturbances
  4. Cognitive impairments from TBI
    • memory
    • attention
    • difficulty learning
    • problem solving
    • planning
    • judgment
    • safety awareness
  5. Personality and Behavioral changes from TBI
    • social and coping skill
    • frustration, anger
    • denial
    • reduced insight
    • disinhibition
    • impulsivity
    • apathy
    • anxiety
    • depression
  6. Lifestyle changes from TBI
    • loss of independence
    • unemployment and financial hardship
    • lack of transportation
    • lack of leisure and recreation opportunities
    • difficulty w/ interpersonal relationships
    • loss of roles
  7. Any injury to the skull, brain tissue, AA, or CSF causes cerebral swelling w/ accompanying blood pressure increases.  This results in ___________ intracerebral pressure.
    increased
  8. Intracranial pressure:
    fluids of the brain are non-compressible so once pressure begins to build intracerebral pressure increases rapidly.  This is life threatening!
  9. Higher ICP leads to ____ cerebral perfusion or a _____ cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).
    • less
    • lower
  10. In a normal brain, when systemic BP rises, cerebral vessels....
    constrict to maintain an even perfusion pressure
  11. In a normal brain, when systemic pressure falls, cerebral vessels....
    dilate to allow better flow, again to maintain even perfusion pressure
  12. Normal ICP = ___ mmHg
    0-15mmHg
  13. At what level of ICP is treatment indicated for?
    20 mmHg
  14. What ICP levels are considered fatal if prolonged in adults?
    25-30mmHg
  15. An ______ in ICP leads to more brain damage.
    increase
  16. Signs and Symptoms of increased ICP
    • coughing
    • fighting a ventilator
    • fighting interventions by therapist
    • CN palsy
    • headache w/ nausea/vomiting
    • mental status changes
    • confusion, agitation, lethargy
  17. What should the therapist do when signs and symptoms of increased ICP are present?
    work closely w/ nurses and doctors in ICU and notify nurse in charge
  18. How is ICP initially measured?
    spinal tap
  19. ICP is measured directly and continuously by what (placed where)?
    calibrated device drilled intracranially
  20. What are the 3 ways to monitor pressure?
    • intraventricular catheter
    • subarachnoid screw/bolt
    • epidural sensor
  21. Intraventricular Catheter
    catheter threaded into one of the lateral ventricles of the brain to monitor ICP
  22. Which ICP monitor is most accurate?
    intraventricular catheter
  23. Which ICP monitor has the advantage of allowing drainage?
    intraventricular catheter
  24. The NIH recommends pts w/ intraventricular catheters keep the heads of their beds elevated ____ both for ________ and ______.
    • 30-45 degrees
    • measurement accuracy and safety in drainage
  25. When the bag of the intraventricular catheter is placed at just the right height, what happens?
    fluid will only drain if the pressure in the head is above the prescribed limit
  26. Subarachnoid screw/bolt:
    consists of screw/bolt placed just through the skull in the space b/w the arachnoid and cerebral cortex to monitor ICP
  27. Epidural sensor:
    placed into epidural space beneath the skull to monitor ICP; no fluid can be drawn from it
  28. Which ICP monitor is least invasive?
    epidural sensor
  29. Do's and Don't w/ Pts who have increased ICP
    • check w/ nurse before therapy
    • don't raise legs, turn on side, or move neck unnecessarily
    • minimize prolonged procedures and monitor ICP while performing tasks
    • only address necessary therapy needs (wound care, splinting, occasional chest PT)
    • may need to move slowly, stay quiet, take breaks

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