Ch.8 Skeletal Muscle, Ch.7 Nervous System, Ch. 9 Cardiovascular System &Circulatory Responses to Exe

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Ch.8 Skeletal Muscle, Ch.7 Nervous System, Ch. 9 Cardiovascular System &Circulatory Responses to Exe
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2014-04-01 20:48:45
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ES348
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Structure & Function
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  1. # of skeletal muscles in human body?
    • 600.
    • 40-50% total body weight
  2. skeletal muscle functions
    • 1.force generation for movement & breathing
    • 2. "                  "       support
    • 3.produce heat
  3. 1.skeletal
    2.cardiac
    3.smooth
    • 1. voluntary, controlled consciously
    • 2.involuntary, controls itself w/ assistance from the nervous & endocrine systems
    • 3.involuntary, controlled by local factors and n&e
  4. 1.muscle function
    2.motor neuron function
    • 1a. force
    • 1b. movement

    • 2a. single muscle to contract
    • 2b. voluntary control
  5. 10000 to more than__ per muscle.

    muscle fiber=

    1 fiber has _
    1 million fibers

    muscle cell

    many nuclei (multinucleated)
  6. muscle fiber enclosed by a plasma membrane_.

    form a network around fibers
    extensions of sarcolemma
    sarcolemma

    T-tubules
  7. *sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores _?
    Calcium
  8. ~Control center of muscle fiber

    -found near membrane
    -control protein synthesis
    -RNA to DNA to protein
    Myonuclei
  9. satellite cells
    • ~important  for regeneration and repair
    • ~muscle 'stem' cells
    • ~look like myonuclei
  10. myofibrils
    sarcomeres placed end to end
  11. sarcomeres
    • -smallest functional unit of a muscle
    • -made of thick (myosin) & thin (actin) filaments
    • -contracts muscles & is striated
  12. myosin
    • -2/3 of muscle protein
    • -molecular motor w/ globular head at one end
  13. Thin Filament Proteins
    • 1. Actin
    • 2. Troponin
    • 3. Tropomyosin
  14. Thick Filament Proteins
    • 1. Myosin
    •     a. head region
    •     b. tail     '    '
  15. motor unit
    motor neuron & the muscle fibers it connects to.
  16. motor end plate
    junction for sarcolemma 'pocket" from muscle fiber innervation from an alpha motor neuron.
  17. Neuromuscular Junction
    • -place where nerve connects to muscle fiber
    • -signals by neurotransmitter acetylcholine         (ACh)
    • -shape maximizes contact for ACh release &  capture
  18. excitation-contraction coupling

    HOW???
    intracellular Ca2+ released -> muscle contracts

    • depolarization of T-tubule
    • opening of SR channels, release of Ca2+
  19. Skeletal Muscle Organization (6)
    • Muscle
    • Fascicle
    • Fiber
    • Myofibril
    • Sarcomere
    • Proteins
  20. Muscle Fiber Structures (5)
    • Sarcolemma
    • Transverse Tubules
    • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    • Mitochondria
    • Nucleus
  21. Myofibril Structure
    • Sarcomere
    • Thin filament (actin)
    • Thick filament (myosin)
  22. Motor Neuron Structure (5)
    • Cell body
    • Dendrites
    • Axon
    • Myelin sheath
    • Nodes of Ranvier
  23. Ryanodine (RyR) Receptor
    signals calcium to be released from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.
  24. Sliding Filament Theory
    • -Myosin cross-bridge activates, binds w/ actin, cross-bridge changes.
    • -The change makes myosin head 'tilt' toward arm of cross-bridge and drags actin and myosin filaments in opposite directions.
  25. Power stroke
    tilt of myosin head
  26. How does the muscle shorten and generate force?
    • -actin filament  is pulled past myosin 5nm
    • -ADP is released
  27. Cross-Bridge Detachment
    • -ATP binds myosin
    • -Myosin detaches from actin
    • -Myosin head moves farther down actin
  28. ATP Hydrolysis
    • -Break ATP into ADP and P(ATPase action)
    • -Myosin head pivots back into its "cocked" position
  29. Muscle Fiber Type
    • 1. Type I Fibers "slow-twitch"
    • 2. Type II Fibers "fast-twitch"
    •     a. Type IIa
    •     b. Type IIx
  30. Muscle fiber types are influenced by...
    • Genetics
    • Blood levels of hormones
    • Individual exercise habits and training status
  31. Altered Neuromuscular Control
    • Exercise-induced muscle fatigue ->
    • -increased muscle spindle activity
    • -decreased GTO activity
  32. What relieves muscle cramping?

    HOW??
    passive stretching

    inverse stretch reflex
  33. Muscle Fiber Type (cont.)
    • -Type I: also called "slow oxidative"
    • -Type IIa: '     '      "fastoxidative, glycolytic"
    • -Type IIx: '     '      "fast glycolytic"
  34. Electrolyte Depletion & Dehydration theory
    • -cramps happen from electrolyte imbalances in blood and extracellular fluid
    • -exercise-induced loss of body water and sodium through heavy sweating causes an electrolyte imbalance.
  35. Def. of Fatigue
    Decrease in power output
  36. Build up of _ disrupts homeostasis.
    metabolites
  37. Cross-Bridge Cycle
    • 1. Myosin attaches to Actin
    • 2. Power stroke
    • 3. Cross-Bridge Detachment
    • 4. ATP Hydrolysis
  38. What 5 things influence fatigability of muscle?
    • 1. individuals state of fitness
    • 2. nutritional status
    • 3. fiber type
    • 4. intensity 
    • 5. duration
  39. Causes of exercise-induced muscle fatigue are __ & ____
    complex & not entirely understood
  40. Biochemical Properties:
    Oxidative capacity of a muscle fiber is determined by the number of __, __, __.
    • Mitochondria
    • Capillaris around the fiber,
    • amount of myoglobin '  '
  41. Large number of mitochondria helps produce more __.

    High number of capillaries around a muscle fiber ensures that the fiber will receive __.
    ATP aerobically

    Oxygen
  42. Specific Force formula...
    • Specific Force (tension) = Force
    •                                    -------
    •                                 Fiber CSA
  43. What are the 4 characteristics that influence muscle fiber performance?
    • maximal force production
    • Seed of contraction
    • maximal power output
    • muscle fiber efficiency
  44. Fibers with high myosin activity...
    possess a high Vmax
  45. Maximal Power Output equation...
    Power= Force x shortening velocity
  46. a measure of the muscle fiber's economy
    muscle fiber efficiency
  47. Efficiency =
    • Energy used
    • ---------------
    • Force produced
  48. Type I Fibers
    • Oxidative capacity - High
    • Anaerobic '       '   - Low
    • Contractile speed  - Slow
    • Motor unit size      - small
    •  '          ' strength - Low
    • Fiber size             - small
  49. Type IIa & IIx Fibers
    • Oxidative capacity - Moderate, Low
    • Anaerobic '      '    - High
    • Contractile speed  - Fast 
    • Motor unit size      - Large (300 - 800 fibers)
    •  '          ' strength - High
    • Fiber size             - Large

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